Bankoku-sōzu

sozu map1           cdm.tokugawa.1-0213137.0000full

Schuyler Lindberg:
(Description on UBC Library website)

  • This double-sided Japanese woodcut displays a world map on the front and illustrated examples of the peoples of the world on the verso.
  • It exemplifies the Bankoku-sōzu (“complete maps of the peoples of the world”) style of cartography influenced by European techniques and geographic knowledge in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Source: http://digitize.library.ubc.ca/digitizers-blog/bankoku-sozu/

One of the most significant and representable Japanese maps from the Tokugawa Era of Japan is the Bankoku-sōzu (萬國総圖). The map was printed from woodblocks format in Nagasaki, Japan and published in approximately 1645. This woodcut map displays a world map during the era on one side and illustration of peoples of the world on the other. As a viewer, we do not only see the locations and countries but also much astronomical information that was collected during and before the Tokugawa Era. Therefore, Bankoku-sōzu is more than just a normal map.

The Bankoku-sōzu was also called “The Complete Map of the Peoples of the World” and it was the first and earliest modern world map published in Japan. On the world map side, we can see a very similar illustration of the map of the world as we have in present days. We can see the continents and locate many countries. On the other side of the map, it has the illustrations of male and female couples from 40 different countries wearing their own traditional clothing. It does not only include existing countries such as, Portugal, England, Holland, India, Taiwan, Japan, and many more, but it also includes people from some of the imaginary places and countries like, the Dwarves and the Giants.

‘Japanese cartography too was based on Chinese scholarship, and was also influenced by European techniques through the Jesuits and their dissemination of Ricci’s work. (Bankoku-sōzu) is an example from 1645 of these Westernized Bankoku-sōzu (“complete maps of the peoples of the world”); which were printed in Nagasaki and spread around the Japanese market in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Dutch maps also heavily influenced the Japanese Nanban (“southern barbarian”) map genre.’ (Wintle 36) Therefore, in this project, we will take a deeper look on how did the Dutch and Chinese influence cartography and the making of Bankoku-sōzu.

dutch flag + china flag → Flag_of_Japan_(bordered).png

Japan & Netherlands:

The history of the interaction and relationship between Japan and the Netherlands go way back to the beginning of the 17th century when the first Dutch ship, “Liefde” arrived in Japan. When the Liefde arrived on April 19, 1600, the Japanese showed great interest in the ship.

Liefde dutch in nagasaki.jpg
The first Dutch Ship arrived in Japan: “Liefde”

Source: http://www.artelino.com/articles/dutch_nagasaki.asp?med=print

The military ruler, Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康) wanted to know more about its firearms that it was carrying onboard. “Will Adams was the captain of the Liefde. By and by he managed to win the confidence of Tokugawa Ieyasu inspire of the interference of the Portuguese, who denounced the Dutch as pirates. This was the beginning of exclusive trade relations between Japan and the Dutch East India Company that would last for nearly 250 years.” (Wanczura 2013) Ieyasu gave permission for the crew to stay in Japan. Some of the Dutch crew then started careers with their valuable knowledge of understanding of maps, navigation, shipbuilding, welfare, and etc. This was when the Dutch cartography technique first established in Japan. Also, the relationship between Dutch and Japan kept growing afterwards.

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康 1543-1616), the Millitary ruler who showed great interest in Liefde.

Source: http://www.japanvisitor.com/famous-japanese-people/tokugawa-ieyasu

The Dutch East India Company (VOC):

In addition, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) had an important role in this relationship. The VOC was uniting many smaller trading companies into the one big organization that could ease the trading business and help them to lead the world’s trading businesses. Dutch government also permitted the VOC to initiate building relationships with foreign authorities. They then were allowed to trade in all Japanese ports. During that time, the Dutch were first one to be able to comply with Tokugawa’s hopes in the early 17th century, when two ships formed the first official Dutch VOC delegation to Japan. ‘The Dutch East India Company arrived this time with two ships, commanded by Nicholas Puyck, which had been detached from a 13 ships fleet which had left Amsterdam in December, 1607. Puyck’s ships, ‘Roode Leeuw met Pijlen’ and “Griffioen”, carrying a modest cargo of silk, pepper and lead. They were led directly to Hirado by two Japanese pilots, There, they received official trading privileges and encouragement to set up a factory.’ (Pflederer)

voc-heading

Source: http://v1.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/organisations/voc/voc.htm

Nagasaki Woodblock Prints:

Another unique part of Bankoku-sōzu is that is formed by Nagasaki woodblock prints. “Compared with the prints from Edo, they are rather primitive design and applied techniques. These prints were already made in the 17th century; in most cases town plans were printed. Not earlier than the mid-18th century, the publishing firm Hiriya publishes the first print on which a Dutchman is depicted.” (Swean 2016) After Bankoku-sōzu, the woodblock prints were more common in Japanese cartography.

Dutch continuous influences:

We can see that the European, especially the Dutch had influenced the Japanese cartography so much ever since the 17th century and onward. Michael Winetle also states in his book, “From the mid-eighteenth century the Dutch influence became even stronger through the promotion of Dutch Studies (Rangaku) in Japan, at a time when the Western presence was confined to the Dutch merchants in Nagaski harbor. So despite its isolation from the West, Japan actually had a plenteous supply of European influence on its cartography over several centuries, as well as its own Chinese-derived and religious mapping traditions.” (Winetle 37)

The Chinese influences:

matteo ricci.jpg
Portrait of Missionary Matteo Ricci, Italian-born Jesuit priest who created Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖)

Source: http://www.arthermitage.org/Painting/Portrait-of-the-Missionary-Matteo-Ricci.html 

We shall also look at how was Bankoku-sōzu made back then. The person who contributed the most in making this map was the Italian-born Jesuit priest, Matteo Ricci who was the first Westerner admitted to Beijing, China and the Forbidden City. He can be considered as one of the must influencetial person to the development of Japanese cartography from China. One of his most well known maps, “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” (坤輿萬國全圖) was issued in 1602 and it was the first European world map in Chinese. He published this map with the knowledge he gained when he was in China. The result of Ricci’s maps being introduced to Japan after his death brought improvement on the Japanese geography and cartography knowledge. Beforehand, the Japanese believed that China, Japan, and India were the three main countries of the world; however as the European culture slowly developed in Japan, Ricci’s maps acted like a catalyst to help the Japanese to realized there is also a civilized Western world aside from China, Japan, and India. The Chinese or Hanzi titles of “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” and “Bankoku-sōzu” have their similarities as well. Bankoku-sōzu also has the 萬國 in its name. The meaning of 萬國 is 10 thousands countries; which can also be all the countries in the world. The Bankoku-sōzu was also called the “Shoho map”, which “was a Japanese copy of a world map that an Italian missionary, Matteo Ricci, had made in China at the end of the 16th century. It was based on various Flemish and Dutch maps by Ortelius, Mercator, etc. Far into the 19th century it was frequently copied and reprinted so that gradually this 16th century world picture superseded the Buddhist three-culture map.” (Swean 2016)

坤輿萬國全圖.jpg
Matteo Ricci’s “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” (坤輿萬國全圖)

Source: http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/financeestate/art/20120507/16313125

BankokuSozu1645.jpg
Bankoku-sōzu (萬國總圖)
* The alignment and placement of countries and continents are very similar to Matteo Ricci’s “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World”.

Source: http://pda.smoliy.ru/antique_maps.php?m=447&pda=1

The 17th and 18th century was considered as the Era of Matteo Ricci’s map in the history of the Japanese cartography. This was an example of cartographic influences from the imperial China. The alignment and placement of countries and continents are very similar to maps that were created afterwards, Bankoku-sōzu is a great example. It simply had so much influence on the Japanese maps that were issued during the Tokugawa Era. One of the most significant examples must be the Bankoku-sōzu that was produced during the mid 17th century.

Act of Seclusion (1636):

Other than the Dutch and the European, the Chinese was also influential in the development of the Japanese cartography during the Tokugawa Era. At one point, the Shogunate re-advocated the relationships with China and Korea within the East Asian international structure by constraining the trade with Western nations. With the establishment of the “Act of Seclusion” in 1636, Japan had limited trades and interchanges with the Western world for the next two centuries. During those times, only the Dutch still maintained their access and relationships with Japan because they were allowed to keep a small outpost on an island in Nagasaki Harbour (Dutch knowledge and learning were “imported” into Japan through the translation of their books. The Japanese then developed themselves upon them throughout this period). However, aside from the Dutch, no other Western countries could maintain the trading relationship with Japan. Meanwhile, the trades continued within East Asia between the Japanese, Korean, and Chinese. In addition, China was located at the center of the structure.

dutch port
Right: Onaji dejima oranda yashiki (The Same: The Dutch Residence on Dejima), left: Oranda fune nyūtsu (The Dutch Ship Entering Port), from Nihon sankai meisan zue (Famous Products of Japan’s Mountains and Seas, Illustrated), 1799

Source: http://oursenseofplace.squarespace.com/-xxx-meisan-zue/

It will require another few thousands words to describe the influential role of the Chinese through the trading relations to the development of the Japan; “The first major account of cultural diffusion into Japanese culture, which can be found in recorded Japanese history, was between 206-to 700 A.D. during Japan’s Yayoi and Yamato period, by 200 A.D. Japan was slowly beginning trade negotiations with nearby China. There was a large contrast between Japan and its more modern trading partner. The Yayoi people of Japan were a tribal society, with the separate tribes spread across Japan.” (Baker)

When we are looking precisely on Japanese maps and geographic knowledge, they “were embedded in a larger framework of political and intellectual order, geography and cartography were never separated out as separate disciplines or fields of study in imperial China.” (Yonemoto 151) The Chinese had tied sciences, geography, arts, literature, and cartography altogether. Therefore, these elements would appear on their maps and the technique got to Japan through their trading relations. ‘On the influence on early modern Japanese mapping of the comprehensive maps of China made during the Qing dynasty with assistance from Jesuit missionaries (Matteo Ricci was one of the greatest examples), Ronald P. Toby has argued that in the Tokugawa lexicon of “foreign” concepts, Chinese ideas not only served as models for change, they functioned as a default mode in times of transition or stasis.’ (Yonemoto 151) In short, the Dutch and the Chinese participated the most in the development of the Japanese cartography in the Tokugawa Era.

Bibliography:

Baker, Mike. “Cultural Diffusion and Its Effects on Japan.” Samurai-archives.com. http://www.samurai-archives.com/cde.html.

Lindberg, Schuyler. “Bankoku sōzu.” Library.ubc.ca. http://digitize.library.ubc.ca/digitizers-blog/bankoku-sozu/ (accessed July 5th, 2012).

Pflederer, Richard. “Dutch and English ties in 17th centuryJapan.” Swaen.com. http://www.swaen.com/japanNedEng.html. (accessed 2016)

Schley, Harrison. “Our Sense of Place: A Place Is a Spectacle: A Description of the Arrival of a Dutch Trading Vessel in Edo-Period Nagasaki.” University of Pennsylvania. http://oursenseofplace.squarespace.com/-xxx-meisan-zue/

Swaen, Paulus. “400 YEAR JAPAN – THE NETHERLANDS.” Swaen.com. http://www.swaen.com/japanNED.php. (accessed 2016)

Swaen, Paulus. “The Mapping of Japan.” Swaen.com. https://www.swaen.com/japanMAP.php. (accessed 2016)

Wanczura, Dieter. “The Dutch in Nagasaki.” Artelino.com. http://www.artelino.com/articles/dutch_nagasaki.asp (updated April, 2013)

Wintle, Michael. Imagining Europe: Europe and European Civilisation as Seen from its Margins and by the Rest of the World, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Germany: P.I.E.-Peter Lang S.A; 1 edition , 2008.

Yonemoto, Marcia. Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period, 1603-1868. USA: University of California Press, April 21 2003.

 

 

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Bankoku sōkaizu

Bankoku sōkaizu (Map of all countries of the world)

 

The Bankoku sōkaizu (Map of all countries of the world) is an early Japanese world map created by Ishikawa Ryusen in 1708 (Worldcat, n.d.). It was originally crafted from a woodblock print (Covers to Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708), which has been visibly repaired in places after heavy use. This map is actually a revised version of a map originally made by Ishikawa Ryusen and published by Sagamiya Tahei in 1688 (British Library, 1708). The Bankoku sōkaizu, published by Suhara Mohē, is 127 by 55.2 cm2 in size and has an attached cover with the same title (Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708). It folds into a booklet when not being viewed. The map is directionally oriented with East at the top, and West at the bottom. The blue color of the ocean and yellow place-names are hand-painted (Covers to Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708). The country of Japan (日本) is located just below and to the right of the dashed center lines and painted yellow, indicating the central importance of Japan to the viewer. At the bottom of the map, the distances in li between Japan and marked locations are given (Covers to Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708). At the top of the map, are two boats, the one on the right representing the boats of the Chinese (大清舩) and on the left representing the Japanese (日本舩). The map also features landmarks such as the great wall (depicted in yellow) and “the island of long people” located in the Americas (長人島)The map is designed to either keep closely for reference, or to spread out for decoration, but would be useless for navigational purposes.

Screen Shot 2016-03-28 at 10.09.02 PMFigure 1.1. The Japanese boat features at the top right corner of the map.

Copies of the Bankoku sōkaizu can be found at the British Library, The Kokkai Library, The Tokyo University’s Yamazaki Bunko, The University of British Columbia’s Tokugawa Maps Collection and the University of California at Berkley’s Japanese Historical Maps collection. A reprinted version of the Bankoku sōkaizu can also be found in “The World of Japanese Maps until the mid-19th Century (Nihon kochizu taisei, sekaizu hen) by Oda Takeo, Muroga Nobuo and Unno Kazutaka and issued as a large table book in a case published 1975 (Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708; Unno, et.al., 1975).

 

Ishikawa Ryusen

 

Ishikawa Ryusen, also known as Toshiyuki Ishikawa (British Library, 1708), was a prolific mapmaker during the Edo period in Japan. His maps were published out of Edo, and many are clear and detailed street maps of the city (Worldcat, n.d.). Since most of his work was published there, it is assumed that Ishikawa Ryusen also lived and worked in Edo.

 

Japan the early 1700s

 

The Bankoku sōkaizu was produced in the year 1708 (Hoei 5)(Bankoku sōkaizu, 1708), which was in the middle of the Edo period (Japan for Sustainability, 2003). The Edo period was a time of great stability for the Japanese people (Japan for Sustainability, 2003). The Tokugawa Shogunate had been in power for some time, and the turbulence of previous decades had come to a fortuitous close. In the 1600s, Japan had undergone a period of instability due to a lack of hegemonic or central power in the nation (Bragg, 2013). After coming together, Japan faced difficulty in its foreign relations. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, regarded as one of the “great unifiers of Japan”, led a disastrous military campaign against Korea (Kazui and Videen, 1982), in the hope that he could use it as a base to attack and conquer China. In this failed campaign, Hideyoshi lost 150,000 Japanese lives, including his own (Bragg, 2013).

 

The next “great unifier of Japan”, Tokugawa Iyesu, rang in a new era by dealing with opposing parties through diplomacy, rather than force. He strategically positioned people with favorable opinions of him side by side with those who did not, so that those who opposed him would have no opportunity to form a legitimate resistance. In this way, he was able to peacefully rule over 250-60 previously loosely held domains within Japan (Bragg, 2013). At this time, Japan had a population of nearly 30 million and Edo (modern Tokyo) was the largest city in the world with a population of 1.25 million (Japan for Sustainability, 2003). Tokugawa Iyesu originally opened Japan to the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English who were seeking to trade Japanese silver for other luxuries(Bragg, 2013). However, as Japanese society became more stable, silver, which was used to mint coins in Japan at the time, began to run out and this trade became seen as a detriment to the national economy (Kazui and Videen, 1982). At the same time, Christianity, which had also been brought by Western traders, began to be seen as a threat to Japanese society and was eradicated (Kazui and Videen, 1982; Bragg, 2013). Not long after this, Japan entered, 1708 a period of isolationism known today as Sakoku (Kazui and Videen, 1982) in which contact between itself and other nations was extremely limited.

 

During Sakoku, foreign contact was limited to nations with whom Japan would trade, and nations with Whom Japan conducted official diplomatic business. No Japanese citizen was allowed to leave Japanese territory. Officially, Japan had diplomatic ties with Korea and the Ryukyu islands (Kazui and Videen, 1982). Japan also maintained trade with the Dutch East India Company and the Chinese through a small island off Nagasaki, called Dejima (Kazui and Videen, 1982). There, foreign traders were watched very closely (Bragg, 2013).

 

It was during this period of isolation that Ishikawa Ryusen made his Bankoku sōkaizu, a map depicting the entire world. Although neither he, nor his countrymen would have been able to travel to any of these places, they would have known about their existence through other maps and travel writings.

Screen Shot 2016-03-28 at 10.12.54 PMFigure 1.2. Japan is depicted in yellow at the center of the map, and in greater detail than all other nations, showing the central importance of Japan to the audience (who would have undoubtedly been Japanese).

Map Influences

 

The map appears to have a combination of Chinese and Portuguese influence in its cartographic style. Because Japanese people at the time were not able to leave their country, they would have had to rely on some outside source in order to learn about the world. The accuracy of world maps was not necessarily evaluated, as they could serve no purpose other than decoration.

 

Chinese

 

Chinese cartographers were very advanced at the time. In 1602, Mateo Ricci, with the help of several Chinese scholars in Beijing and a world map he had brought from the West was able to create the first world map in Chinese (Norman, n.d., University of Minnesota, n.d.). This map depicts not only the countries of Europe and Asia, but also those of the Americas (Wintle, 2008). The center of the map is divided, like the Bankoku sōkaizu, in the Atlantic Ocean, leaving Japan and the Pacific near the visual center of the world (Blue). Like the Ricci map, the Bankoku sōkaizu is made from woodblock prints (Norman, n.d.), a technique the Japanese imported from China (Wintle, 2008). Woodblock prints are created by carving a mirror-image of the final print into a wooden block, coating that block with ink, and then pressing that ink onto paper (Asian Art Museum, n.d.).

Screen Shot 2016-03-28 at 10.14.34 PMFigure 1.3. This character for West (西)has been cut in half by the woodblock, which was likely done in multiple pieces due to the size of the map.

Portuguese

 

Portuguese mapmakers may also have had an influence on the style and structure of this and other similar maps. For example, it was only after contact with Dutch and Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 1500s that “bankoku” maps began to emerge (Auslin, 2011). Bankoku maps depicted all of the countries of the world, as opposed to maps that used to depict “the three realms of Japan, China and India” (Auslin, 2011). Many of these bankoku maps were published in Nagasaki, where foreign contact was limited, but allowed (Wintle, 2008). Although contact with foreigners was essentially nonexistent under Sakoku, by the mid 1700s, Dutch Studies (Rangaka) had become a strong influence in Japan (Wintle, 2008), and a style of maps known as Nanban was directly influenced by this contact.

 

Other examples of “bankoku” maps include the Bankoku sōzu and the Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu, which can both be found in the University of British Columbia Tokugawa maps Collection.

Screen Shot 2016-03-28 at 10.16.26 PMFigure 1.4. Inclusion of the Americas was unique to maps of this time period, America (アメリカ) can be seen in Yellow on the left.

 

Works Cited:

 

Auslin, Michael R. Pacific Cosmopolitans: A Cultural History of U.S.-Japan Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2011. Print.

 

Bragg, Melvyn, perf. Japan’s Sakoku Period. In Our Time. Rec. 4 Apr. 2013. BBC Radio 4, n.d. Web.

 

“The Invention of Woodblock Printing in the Tang (618–906) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties.” Asian Education. Asian Art Museum, San Francisco, n.d. Web.

 

Ishikawa, Ryusen. “Bankoku Sōkaizu.” University of British Columbia Tokugawa Maps Collection. Edo: Suhara Mohē, 1708. N. pag. Web.

 

Ishikawa, Ryusen. “Covers to Bankoku Sōkaizu.” Edo: Suhara Mohē, 1708. N. pag. University of California at Berkley East Asian Library. Web.

 

“Japan’s Sustainable Society in the Edo Period.” Japan for Sustainability (31 Mar. 2003): n. pag. Japan For Sustainability. Web.

 

Kazui, Tashiro, and Susan Downing Videen. “Foreign Relations During the Edo Period: Sakoku Reexamined.” The Journal of Japanese Studies 8.2 (1982): 283-306. JSTOR [JSTOR]. Web.

 

“Matteo Ricci, Li Zhizao, and Zhang Wentao: World Map of 1602.” University of Minnesota Libraries. Univeristy of Minnesota, n.d. Web.

 

Norman, Jeremy. “Matteo Ricci Issues the First European-Style World Map in Chinese & the First Chinese Map to Show the Americas (1602).” History of Information. N.p., n.d. Web.

 

Ryusen, Ishikawa. “Bankoku Sōkaizu. [Map of All Countries of the World.] [Revised by the Artist Ishikawa Toshiyuki].” British Library. N.p., n.d. Web.

 

Suhara, Mohē. “Bankoku Sōkaizu.” Worldcat. N.p., n.d. Web.

 

Unno, Kazutaka, Takeo Oda, and Nobuo Muroga. Nihon Kochizu Taisei. The World in Japanese Maps until the Mid-19th Century. N.p.: n.p., 1975. Print.

 

Wintle, Michael J. Imagining Europe: Europe and European Civilisation as Seen from Its Margins and by the Rest of the World, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Bruxelles: Peter Lang, 2008. Print.