Fujisan no zo

Introduce Mount Fuji

cdm.tokugawa.1-0216508.0000full.jpg

Mount Fuji is also known as Fujiyama, Fuji-YoNama andFujisan. It is a cone shaped volcanic mountain. Its last eruption happened in 1707. Mount Fuji is 12,388 feet and it is the highest mount of Japan. Mount Fuji as tall as the cloud. The top of the Mount is always full of snow. Mount Fuji is the most sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is located on the island of Honshu. (Whalen,2) Mount Fuji is the most famous mountain in Japan. Mount Fuji has added to the World Heritage Site in 2013. Mount Fuji is pilgrim place, and there are many literary works base on Mount Fuji. Therefore Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan, and it is very sacred.

Literary works based on the Mount Fuji

During Japanese era 713, Japanese starts write fudoki (風土記)that report provincial geography, culture, agriculture..Etc. There is one fodoki called “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki (常陸国風土記) “has records a story about Mount Fuji. There is a deity of heaven travel all around Japan. The deity visits Mount Fuji first. Mount Fuji refuses deity’s request to stay in Mount Fuji over night because Mount Fuji believes that it does not need deity’s blessing. Mount Fuji already has the perfect shape and the great peak. Then, the deity visits the Mount Tsukuba inside the Hitachi province. Mount Tsukuba lets deity stay and offering food humbly. As a result, Mount Fuji always has snow covering the peak, and it is always cold. On the other hand, Mount Tsukuba is very colorful with season changing.
Later, there are many legends about Mount Fuji come out. In the 10th century Japanese fiction prose narrative called “The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter(竹取物語)” . The books talks about a bamboo cutter called Taketori no Okina finds a little girl inside the bamboo when he cutting the bamboo. Taketori no Okina brings the little girl home. Taketori no Okina and his wife treat the little girl like their own daughter and name her Kaguya-hime which means “princess of flexible bamboos scattering light”. Three months later, the little girl grows up and the news of her beauty spread. Therefore, many young man come to Taketori no Okina and ask for marry Kaguya-hime. The emperor also become one of the man ask for marry Kaguya- hime. However, Kaguya-hime refuses all of them. Kaguya-hime is the fairy of the moon. And she has to go back to the moon on the august 15th on the third year. Before Kaguya-hime returns to the moon. Kaguya-hime leaves elixir of immortality for her parents. Taketori no Okina is does not live forever without his daughter. Taketori no Okina hands the elixir of immortality to the emperor. The emperor burns the elixir of immortality and the letter on the peak of the highest mountain. Therefore, the word immortality, Fushi不死(never dead) became the name of the mountain – Mount Fuji. Therefore, Japanese solider will have the figure of Mount Fuji on their clothes. Because they believe that Mount Fuji means Fushi.

The religion based on Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji used to be treat as a sacred mountain, because the volcanic eruption. People believe that Mount Fuji has the power of fire and water. (Earhar)
First, Mountain valued more because it is suitable for Buddhism practice. Around six century C.E. Japanese get influence from Chinese religion. During that time, Buddhism is the main religion in China. Taoist notions and Confucian ideas are also popular. Therefore, people believe that the best place for meditation is a flat area deep in the mountains base on the Buddhism sutra.(Earhar). So, mountain has more meaning.
Second, because there are building and rites are located on the mountain peak and mountainside. Therefore, climbing mountain is also a religious practice. For example, the Fuji pilgrimages. (Earhar). Mount. Fuji uses to be a sacred place that people can only look at but not able to climb because of the volcanic eruption. Later, climbing Mount Fuji has become a religious practice. The pilgrimage route to the summit of Mount Fuji had been established on fourteenth century. There are two cultic related to Mount Fuji: fire rituals and climbing the mountain.

453 2.pic.jpg

During Edo period, A group of people whose purpose are climbing the mountain called Fuji-ko (富士講) performs fire ceremonies before people climbing mountain, and burn the mini straw replicas Mount Fuji. (Brockman, 355) Just like the picture below on the left side. During Edo period, some people might live too far away from Mount Fuji. They cannot afford to go to Mount Fuji, and women are not allowed to climb Mount Fuji. Therefore, people contribute a mini Mount Fuji on the direction of Mount Fuji, so they can pray to the mini Mount Fuji. (Brockman,355).
“Pilgrims starts at a shrine at the base of the mountain. Each of the routes has ten rest station…the most popular route has ninety-nine switchbacks.” (Brockman, 355). The six people on the right hand side of the picture are the people who are climbing the mountain.

Third, these later develop to express the mixture of tradition. (Earhar).
The key point of all the legend about Mount Fuji is Asama Shrine (浅間神社).”In Kakugyo’s time, the two chief religious institutions devoted to Mt. Fuji were the Fuji Sengen (or Asama) Shrine 富士浅間神社.”(Tyler,252). Asama Shrine still has 1300 branches nowadays. Therefore Asama shrine still have large influence in Japan as we can see from the number. During Edo period, there are many religions base on Mount Fuji. These religions are the new religions that mix Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, Assma Shrine also becomes a “bodhisattva” in Assma. Mount Fuji is very important in religions believes at that time. (Earhart)

4535.pic.jpg

“Fuji ascetic Kakugyo 角行 (書行藤佛)(1541- 1646), the founder of the Edo- period (1600-1868) cult of Mt. Fuji.” (Tyler, 252). During fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, society and religion are mix together because the warring state. “ The central message and key leader of Fuji religiosity came not from Murayama and its professional Shugendo priests but from the ranks of the common people – a wandering practitioner named Kakugyo.” (Earhart). Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is the right hand side figure of the two mountain ascetics featured on the map. The name Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is meaningful. Kaku means “square”, Gyo means “practice” , To can be read as “fuji”, Butsu is the name of the Buddham and Ku means honor. Therefore, the name Kakugyo Tobutsu Ku means square, fuji, practice buddham and honor.

Kakugyo Tobustu Ku has two famous disciples. One is Jikigyo Miroku 食行身禄 (1671-1733)and Murakami Kosei 村上光清 (1682-1759. These two people are reat sixth-generation successors that turned the cult in to a mass movement. (Tyler, 253). Jikigyo Miroku is the figure above that on the left side. Miroku means maitreya 弥勒 in Buddhism which is the Buddha who is to come. Jikigyo Miroku get the name Miroku 身禄 from Fuji deity directly (Tyler,261). Jikigyo Miroku’s death launched the Fuji cult as a mass movement. Jikigyo fasted to death on the height of Mt.Fuji. Jikigyo Miroku uses his death to feed the world. (Tyler, 261)

During that time, Japan has many religion bases on the nature worship. The religion base on the nature worship still has influence till now. All these worship and religions is the people want to have some supernatural that can help their life, make their dream come true by using an fantasy way. That is the original Japanese religions. It related to Earhart has mention: “ At Fuji, as is true within all of Japanese religion, power- even destructive force – may be venerated as well as feared, worshipped at the same time as it is pacified. “ (Asasm shirne)

In conclusion, Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan. There are many literary works and legend stories base on Mount Fuji. Later, there are religion base on Mount Fuji that is a mixture of Shintoism, Buddhism, Taoism and some folk belief. All these elements reflect that the relationship between Mount Fuji and Japanese.

Reference:
1.Whalen, Ken. Fuji,Mount. Sage knowledge, 2017,
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4135/9781412953924.n437. Access Mar 26 2017.
2.Earhart,Byron. Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan. The University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
3.Brockman,Nobert C. Encyclopedia of sacred places. 2011.
4. Tyler Royall, The Book of the Great Practice: The Life of the Mt. Fuji Ascetic Kakugyō Tōbutsu Kū. Nanzan University, 1993.

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Fujisan no zu

Introduce Mount Fuji

cdm.tokugawa.1-0216508.0000full.jpg
Mount Fuji is also known as Fujiyama, Fuji-YoNama andFujisan. It is a cone shaped volcanic mountain. Its last eruption happened in 1707. Mount Fuji is 12,388 feet and it is the highest mount of Japan. Mount Fuji as tall as the cloud. The top of the Mount is always full of snow. Mount Fuji is the most sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is located on the island of Honshu. (Whalen,2) Mount Fuji is the most famous mountain in Japan. Mount Fuji has added to the World Heritage Site in 2013. Mount Fuji is pilgrim place, and there are many literary works base on Mount Fuji. Therefore Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan, and it is very sacred.

Literary works based on the Mount Fuji

During Japanese era 713, Japanese starts write fudoki (風土記)that report provincial geography, culture, agriculture..Etc. There is one fodoki called “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki (常陸国風土記) “has records a story about Mount Fuji. There is a deity of heaven travel all around Japan. The deity visits Mount Fuji first. Mount Fuji refuses deity’s request to stay in Mount Fuji over night because Mount Fuji believes that it does not need deity’s blessing. Mount Fuji already has the perfect shape and the great peak. Then, the deity visits the Mount Tsukuba inside the Hitachi province. Mount Tsukuba lets deity stay and offering food humbly. As a result, Mount Fuji always has snow covering the peak, and it is always cold. On the other hand, Mount Tsukuba is very colorful with season changing.
Later, there are many legends about Mount Fuji come out. In the 10th century Japanese fiction prose narrative called “The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter(竹取物語)” . The books talks about a bamboo cutter called Taketori no Okina finds a little girl inside the bamboo when he cutting the bamboo. Taketori no Okina brings the little girl home. Taketori no Okina and his wife treat the little girl like their own daughter and name her Kaguya-hime which means “princess of flexible bamboos scattering light”. Three months later, the little girl grows up and the news of her beauty spread. Therefore, many young man come to Taketori no Okina and ask for marry Kaguya-hime. The emperor also become one of the man ask for marry Kaguya- hime. However, Kaguya-hime refuses all of them. Kaguya-hime is the fairy of the moon. And she has to go back to the moon on the august 15th on the third year. Before Kaguya-hime returns to the moon. Kaguya-hime leaves elixir of immortality for her parents. Taketori no Okina is does not live forever without his daughter. Taketori no Okina hands the elixir of immortality to the emperor. The emperor burns the elixir of immortality and the letter on the peak of the highest mountain. Therefore, the word immortality, Fushi不死(never dead) became the name of the mountain – Mount Fuji. Therefore, Japanese solider will have the figure of Mount Fuji on their clothes. Because they believe that Mount Fuji means Fushi.

The religion based on Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji used to be treat as a sacred mountain, because the volcanic eruption. People believe that Mount Fuji has the power of fire and water. (Earhar)
First, Mountain valued more because it is suitable for Buddhism practice. Around six century C.E. Japanese get influence from Chinese religion. During that time, Buddhism is the main religion in China. Taoist notions and Confucian ideas are also popular. Therefore, people believe that the best place for meditation is a flat area deep in the mountains base on the Buddhism sutra.(Earhar). So, mountain has more meaning.
Second, because there are building and rites are located on the mountain peak and mountainside. Therefore, climbing mountain is also a religious practice. For example, the Fuji pilgrimages. (Earhar). Mount. Fuji uses to be a sacred place that people can only look at but not able to climb because of the volcanic eruption. Later, climbing Mount Fuji has become a religious practice. The pilgrimage route to the summit of Mount Fuji had been established on fourteenth century. There are two cultic related to Mount Fuji: fire rituals and climbing the mountain.
During Edo period, A group of people whose purpose are climbing the mountain called Fuji-ko (富士講) performs fire ceremonies before people climbing mountain, and burn the mini straw replicas Mount Fuji. (Brockman, 355) Just like the picture below on the left side. During Edo period, some people might live too far away from Mount Fuji. They cannot afford to go to Mount Fuji, and women are not allowed to climb Mount Fuji. Therefore, people contribute a mini Mount Fuji on the direction of Mount Fuji, so they can pray to the mini Mount Fuji. (Brockman,355).
“Pilgrims starts at a shrine at the base of the mountain. Each of the routes has ten rest station…the most popular route has ninety-nine switchbacks.” (Brockman, 355). The six people on the right hand side of the picture are the people who are climbing the mountain.

453 2.pic.jpg

Third, these later develop to express the mixture of tradition. (Earhar).
The key point of all the legend about Mount Fuji is Asama Shrine (浅間神社).”In Kakugyo’s time, the two chief religious institutions devoted to Mt. Fuji were the Fuji Sengen (or Asama) Shrine 富士浅間神社.”(Tyler,252). Asama Shrine still has 1300 branches nowadays. Therefore Asama shrine still have large influence in Japan as we can see from the number. During Edo period, there are many religions base on Mount Fuji. These religions are the new religions that mix Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, Assma Shrine also becomes a “bodhisattva” in Assma. Mount Fuji is very important in religions believes at that time. (Earhart)

4535.pic.jpg

“Fuji ascetic Kakugyo 角行 (書行藤佛)(1541- 1646), the founder of the Edo- period (1600-1868) cult of Mt. Fuji.” (Tyler, 252). During fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, society and religion are mix together because the warring state. “ The central message and key leader of Fuji religiosity came not from Murayama and its professional Shugendo priests but from the ranks of the common people – a wandering practitioner named Kakugyo.” (Earhart). Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is the right hand side figure of the two mountain ascetics featured on the map. The name Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is meaningful. Kaku means “square”, Gyo means “practice” , To can be read as “fuji”, Butsu is the name of the Buddham and Ku means honor. Therefore, the name Kakugyo Tobutsu Ku means square, fuji, practice buddham and honor.

Kakugyo Tobustu Ku has two famous disciples. One is Jikigyo Miroku 食行身禄 (1671-1733)and Murakami Kosei 村上光清 (1682-1759. These two people are reat sixth-generation successors that turned the cult in to a mass movement. (Tyler, 253). Jikigyo Miroku is the figure above that on the left side. Miroku means maitreya 弥勒 in Buddhism which is the Buddha who is to come. Jikigyo Miroku get the name Miroku 身禄 from Fuji deity directly (Tyler,261). Jikigyo Miroku’s death launched the Fuji cult as a mass movement. Jikigyo fasted to death on the height of Mt.Fuji. Jikigyo Miroku uses his death to feed the world. (Tyler, 261)

During that time, Japan has many religion bases on the nature worship. The religion base on the nature worship still has influence till now. All these worship and religions is the people want to have some supernatural that can help their life, make their dream come true by using an fantasy way. That is the original Japanese religions. It related to Earhart has mention: “ At Fuji, as is true within all of Japanese religion, power- even destructive force – may be venerated as well as feared, worshipped at the same time as it is pacified. “ (Asasm shirne)

In conclusion, the religion base on Mount Fuji is a mixture of Shintoism, Buddhism, Taoism and some folk belief. All these elements reflect that the relationship between Mount Fuji and Japanese.

Reference:
1.Whalen, Ken. Fuji,Mount. Sage knowledge, 2017,
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4135/9781412953924.n437. Access Mar 26 2017.
2.Earhart,Byron. Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan. The University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
3.Brockman,Nobert C. Encyclopedia of sacred places. 2011.
4. Tyler Royall, The Book of the Great Practice: The Life of the Mt. Fuji Ascetic Kakugyō Tōbutsu Kū. Nanzan University, 1993.

The Bifurcation of Two Countries’ fates ——A Map in Isolation Era of Japan & China

 

Introduction

Both of Japan and China had national isolations,and westernization reformations during 19th century. Although both of them were forced to open their gates and sign numerous unjust treaties by western countries, only Japan turned to a powerful country through their reformation after, and China was nibbled by great powers. At pre-modern era, the two countries had totally different altitudes toward western civilization, which lead to their different national fates.

The map that I picked is just a witness of such an ironical time about East Asia. Times have passed and circumstances have changed, but the map is still lying on museum’s display table and telling us this history silently. Through my research, I want to explore how Japan and China’s altitudes toward pre-modern western civilization’s impact effected the two countries’ modernizations, and why only Japan succeed.

 

The Map’s History

This is the map I picked in UBC’s museum called地球萬國山海輿地全圖説(Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusets).

图片 1

Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu (1790), the map copy of坤輿万国全図

 

It was created by Nagakubo, Sekisui (1717-1801) in 1790 (UBC, 2015). It was based on Ricci, Matteo (1552-1610)’s 坤輿万国全図, the main character of this paper.

坤輿万国全図 was the most advanced world map in 17th century. It was imported to Japan from China in early isolation era, colored and marked by some katakana annotations.

1200px-Kunyu_Wanguo_Quantu_(坤輿萬國全圖)Unattributed (1604?), two page colored Japanese copy of the 1602 map

 

The original Chinese version was created by the Christian missionary, Matteo Ricci, in 1602 with the assistance from 李之藻 (1565-1630), the minister and scientist in the Ministry of Works in feudal China (Ming Dynasty) (日本の世界地図(1)発見の時代~坤輿万国全図 写図, 2011). It was a very large map with the size of 1.8x4M, and carved on six large blocks of wood.

Kunyu Wanguo Quantu, printed by Matteo Ricci, Zhong Wentao and Li Zhizao, upon request of Wanli Emperor in Beijing, 1602

 

This map was surprisingly accurate, and detailed, so that some people even doublet its facticity (锐尺, 2014). This is understandable if we consider the measuring/mapping technique in early 17th century. At that time, Australia and Antarctica were still not found yet, and Magellan’s trip around the world just passed 80 years. As a matter of course, people will be surprised that a missionary could utilize old time’s mapping technique to create such a modern-like map which we made by using satellites. Not only about continents and 2 polar, it explains the cause of eclipses and the rotating system of earth and moon as well.

 

Matteo Ricci was one of the pioneers of Catholic missionary in China and the first Western scholar who read Chinese literature and studied Chinese ancient books. Except doing missionary works, he also tried to keep in touch with officers and society people, and spread the Western astronomy, mathematics, geography and other scientific knowledge (锐尺, 2014). His writings not only made important contributions to the exchanges between China and the West, but also had a significant impact on the understanding of Western civilization on the Japanese and Korean, such as this geographical map. He combined Chinese and western measuring and marine technology to contribute this most advanced world map based on former maps.

 

Different Encounter in China And Japan

Unfortunately,Chinese rulers didn’t take this significant map seriously. This map was published in late Ming dynasty. But Ming was replaced by Qing in 1636. In Qing dynasty, emperor and government ministers lost their passion on western culture and modern technologies. They couldn’t distinguish Spain and Portugal, and even made mistake to recognize France. But those were ready-made knowledge on this map, from former dynasty. In Qing Dynasty, people’s deficit about nature science completely unmasked in many ways.

In Kangxi period, the minister Guangxian Yang, criticized ‘Round earth theory’ that: “有识者以理推之,不觉喷饭满案矣。夫人顶天立地,未闻有横立倒立之人也。……此可见大地之非圆也” (锐尺, 2014). It means that if earth is a round, then the person stands above the round and anther person stands below the round will be standing opposite, so one of them must be hanging upside down, which is impossible. It can be seen that Chinese people were not able to understand gravity, no speaking of solar system which denied Chinese believe: our world is the central of the universe. Thus, this map was a treason for Qing government. 地球, the most common Chinese character in todays’ world were definitely a traitorous word in 17th century’s China. The word, 地球 was firstly introduced by Ricci on this map in history (锐尺, 2014). It overturned Chinese people’s traditional concept of the world: round universe and square earth.

It was also a bad word for Qing’s empire. For example, Asia was marked as 亚细亚. In Qing’s famous scholar Pingbu Qing’s book,he interpreted it as an insult. Because the word, 亚 in Chinese means secondary, lowliness, and loser. In former dynasty, Ming, the government minister Guangqi Xu cooperated with Matteo Ricci to translate one of the modern science’s footstones: ‘Elements of Geometry’ (98绿茶, 2008). But in Qing dynasty, what Ricci’s works got, were only ignorance and ridicule. The sorry decline of Chinese people’s scientific spirt made their country far behind the world later, and their governing class had inevitable responsibility.

In contrast, this map was a reference of geographic knowledge in Japan. It became the most important template of map creation. Just after one year of map坤輿万国全図’s first publish, it was imported to Japan in 1603~1606. This map with Chinese characters was much more popular than other EU-made maps in Japan, and it was considered as the only reliable world map, and became the most important information source for later works, especially during close country period (坤輿万国全図).

 

The Difference of China and Japan’s Revolution

China is the Heaven country, which has vast territory and abundant resources, such a though rooted in Qing rulers’ heads. They didn’t care westerners came to China for culture exchange or business or what. Pre-modern western civilization couldn’t catch Qing emperors’ eyes, except weapon  s. In late Qing dynasty, similar to Japan, China was facing inside national conflicts and the threat of outside colonialism, in order to maintain the Qing’s dominant position, some ministers lead China’s modernization movement as well.  But the difference was, Japan’s Meji restoration was started from lower worriers. The unfair promotion system, the busted economy, and countless never-seen western technology made them have no choice to down the Bakufu. What they need is a powerful modern country, a new world, but not a decayed old government.

During isolation period, Tokugawa government opened Nagasaki bay, allowed Dutch and Chinese had trades there. The government ordered coming businessmen need to write reports about overseas’ information. Such as風説書 fusetsugaki  (于忠元, 2013) . During 1840-1844 the風説書 about China even reached 19 books, through those reports Japanese governing class realized the unprecedentedly national crisis that eastern people were facing (于忠元, 2013).  Edo people were curious about how world was changing. But Qing government thought China was still the strongest, most advanced country in the world.

In the aspect of psychology, Chinese and Japanese were different as well. For a long term, China was the absolute leader in Asia as a culture exporter. Chinese emperors called surrendering countries as the lands of the barbarians. During the 30 years of Chinese westernization, Chinese publisher’s books about western learning only were sold about 13000 books. But in Japan, only books about western learning which written by Fukuzawa Yukichi were sold over 250,000 books (黎询洲, 2013). Just because Japan did not have the superiority complex towards foreign countries, so Japanese people could accept western learnings without hesitation.

 

Conclusion

In Matteo Ricci’s notes, he commented that arrogance and being conservative brought China unfortunate fate; based on the greatness, political institution, and the fame of scholarism, they regarded other nations as savages, but such an innocence would make them arrogant. Obviously, only looking far ahead and following the trend of times could make a country progress. That is so called Chinese traditional virtue: modesty. As a powerhouse, he must keep awake from his power; once he lost in it, the day of his death is not far. If we enlarge the scale of time, there is no permanent advanced countries, but only permanent developing countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

 

98绿茶. (2008/7). 《坤舆万国全图》见证了清朝时期可悲的倒退. Access time: 2017/4/1,铁血网: http://bbs.tiexue.net/post2_2946086_1.html
UBC. (2015). Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu. Access time: 2017/4/5, Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/tokugawa/items/1.0213204#p0z-5r0f:%E4%B8%87%E5%9B%BD
坤輿万国全図. Access time: 2017/4/4, 世界史の窓: http://www.y-history.net/appendix/wh0801-103.html
黎询洲. (2013). 中日“闭关锁国”时期的文化心理之比较. Theoretic Observation (79), Page 40.
日本の世界地図(1)発見の時代~坤輿万国全図 写図. (2011年9月27日). Access time: 2017/4/2, 泰西古典絵画紀行:
http://blog.goo.ne.jp/dbaroque/e/2aac5de801e476215d496d83e3909433
锐尺. (2014/10). 《坤舆万国全图》:一张明代的世界地图. Access time: 2017年4月6日,National Geographic: http://www.nationalgeographic.com.cn/news/2190.html
于忠元. (2013). 中日“闭关锁国”时代对西方态度之比较. Forward Position (328), Page 150.

 

 

Yokohama: The City of Foreign Trade

Yokohama (横浜市 Yokohama-shi), the capital of Kanagawa prefecture, Japan is the country’s second largest city and running one of its leading seaports. Yokohama is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area, and is one of the major international trading ports of Japan today.

 Yokohama: A Small Fishing Village

cdm.tokugawa.1-0216610.0000full

In the late Edo period, Yokohama played a major role in Japan’s foreign trade, but before becoming a leading port, Yokohama was once a small fishing village. Until Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his fleet of U.S. naval warships visited Yokohama near the end of the Edo period in 1854, in which, quickly turned the city into the base for foreign trade in Japan. In 1859, Yokohama became a port for foreign trade and settlement that enjoyed extraterritorial and powerful rights. Known especially for its exports of raw silk and tea, Yokohama also handled canned fish and other local products since this city now was once a fishing village.1 “Foreign trade led to the rapid growth of Yokohama, which served during the last half of the 19th century as Tokyo’s outer port.”2

The Arrival of Foreigners

Almost 160 years ago the Edo government decided to open more of Japan to Westerners such as The United States, UK, Russia, Netherlands and France. Until then Japan has been isolated since they only allowed certain type of people to trade in Nagasaki such as the Dutch and Chinese. Yokohama was a small fishing village, and the history of Yokohama as a metropolis began with the opening of the port in 1859. The seaport was the result of a treaty between Japan and the United States, together with a number of other European countries.3 There was a need for a new port, but between Japan and the US, it was almost impossible to reach agreement as to where it was to be located.4 The USA and other allies wanted to settle in Kanagawa (an area directly south of Edo), but the Shogunate (also known as the office of chief military commanders) decided otherwise. Therefore, they chose Yokohama to become the new port. However the real motive behind this decision was the Shogunate’s fear of how the foreigners’ disruption might arise in Japan, since there were foreigners already living in the Kanagawa’s area.5 “Another reason for opening the port in Yokohama was its topography, which has consisted of hills and the bay of Tokyo. This topography had the same advantages in isolating the foreign community as that of Nagasaki.”6 The new port was constructed at a steady pace, and as the villagers of Yokohama were moved to another area, foreign “custom houses, two harbours, and a checkpoint for trading goods were constructed.”7

cdm.tokugawa.1-0227942.0000full

So the big question here is why did Commodore Matthew C. Perry, or to be more broad; Europeans, go to Yokohama and turned the city into a trade harbor? One of the most common reasons was to bring back items, which worth a lot in the Western countries which meant money and wealth. Asia was still a newly market country that could bring wealth to the Western countries, and in the Edo period, Edo (currently known as Tokyo) was the biggest city in the world, and in order to reach and trade with Edo, Yokohama was the place to do that since the city had the biggest port, closest to Edo. Additionally, the availability to trade with Yokohama carried a great amount of Southeastern products. For Japanese, traveling to the Southeastern part of Asia was not difficult, but for the Europeans, such as the Dutch had a difficult time since the direction to go to Southeast Asia was difficult for them, the easiest way to trade for Southeastern products was through, Japan.8

When Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived to Yokohama, supposedly the message he brought to Japan’s leaders also looked forward for a mutually beneficial trade relations. Commodore_Matthew_Calbraith_PerryOn the surface, Perry’s demands seemed relatively modest,9 but truthfully, the trade treaty was unfair and made the European unwelcome for this business. However, since the government of Japan was frightened by the power of the US military, hence the Japanese government gave in to almost all of Perry’s demands to this negotiating treaty. Even though the Japanese government grant these foreigners to settle in and allowed their trading businesses, the Japanese government still had a bit of control of this port because “first, the treaty was a negotiated, not a treaty of defeat, and thus had no coercive elements; second, the shogunate had planned the construction of the foreign settlement and thus had a strong say in its running; third, the shogunate even in the later negotiations never relented about Yokohama; and fourth, the foreigners did not have the monetary recourses to construct a settlement by themselves.”10 Therefore, the Japanese still had power to this port.

“For Americans, Perry’s expedition to Japan was but one momentous step in a seemingly inexorable westward expansion that ultimately spilled across the Pacific to embrace the exotic East. But for the Japanese, on the other hand, the intrusion of Perry’s warships was traumatic, confounding, fascinating, and ultimately devastating.11
As the foreign settlement and trade began in Yokohama, the Americans enter into the Japanese trading industry and other foreigners quickly followed after. Due to the rush of foreigners, foreign influences and experiences flooded Japan heavily mixing the Japanese and Western culture.12 One example that the Europeans brought over on their 06_030a_Dejimatrading ships would be Christian missionaries. Widely known to the Japanese as the “southern barbarians” since they arrived from the south and welcomed themselves to a place that a religion has already been established a long time ago, these foreigners intruding into Japan established a particularly strong presence in and around port cities, thus the unwelcome mix of foreign influences.13

The Trading Ports: Yokohama vs. Nagazaki

Compared to other lesser well known Japanese ports, foreign merchants preferred Yokohama because the city had excellent deep water ports, therefore making the city the largest trading port in Japan because it was close to the capital, Edo, and because it was blessed with warm and clement weather.

“Since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tokugawa shogunate pursued a policy of isolating the country from outside influences. Foreign trade was maintained only with the Dutch and the Chinese and was conducted exclusively at Nagasaki under a strict government monopoly.”14 But since the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry made the opening of Yokohama port easier for Westerns trade closer to Edo. Nagasaki contrary was at the very end of Japan, which made it difficult to communicate with the shogunate in Edo.

Past vs. Present

As the number of Western foreign ships docking at The Yokohama port, Britain ships carried more than 50 percent of the trade, although in terms of value, the Japanese export trade exceeded the import trade. The main Japanese export item was silk, and the second item was tea. Silk and tea combined comprised 90 per cent of the export trade.15

NauticalChart_Yokohama_1874

(Port of Yokohama in the Past)

yokohama-bay-areamain

(Present day Port of Yokohama)

Presently, Yokohama Port no longer exports only silk and tea, but is composed of ten major piers. Some of the piers such as the Honmoku Pier, is the port’s core facility, Osanbashi Pier handles passenger traffic, such as cruises, and has customs, immigration and quarantine facilities for international travel, Detamachi Pier receives fresh fruits and vegetables, and seven berths of Mizuho Pier are used by the United States Forces Japan, and additional piers handle timber and serve other functions.16 Over the evolving years of the Yokohama port, the port has expanded worldwide trading from importing and exporting.

 

Work Cited

[1] “Yokohama,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., last modified March 26, 2017, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yokohama.

[2] “Yokohama,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., last modified March 26, 2017, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yokohama.

[3] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[4] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[5] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[6] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[7] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[8] “100 Year Japan – The Netherlands,” Paulus Swaen, last modified June 14, 2010, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.swaen.com/japanNED.php

[9] “Matthew C. Perry.” Wikipedia. Last modified March 21, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_C._Perry.

[10] Ian Nish and Yoichi Kibata, The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600-1930. (New York: Springer, 2000), 45

[11] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[12] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[13] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[14] “Convention of Kanagawa.” Wikipedia. Last modified February 08, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_of_Kanagawa.

[15] Ian Nish and Yoichi Kibata, The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600-1930. (New York: Springer, 2000), 45

[16] “Port of Yokohama,” Wikipedia, last modified November 15, 2016, accessed March 22, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Yokohama.

 

Maps of Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan. It is an active volcano and its height is an altitude of 3,776 meters. In June of 2013, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage property, under the name of ‘sacred place and source of artistic inspiration.’ As ‘the great object of universal devotion’ and ‘a source of artistic inspiration,’ Mount Fuji has been effecting to Japanese people’s lives, and their nature and culture. Therefore, it is drawn and created to maps by people. Fujisan no zu (富士山之圖) and Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu (大日本富士山絶頂之圖) are the example of them.

fujisan no zu.jpg

Fujisan no zu (富士山之圖) – It means a ‘Map of Mount Fuji.’ This map was created by Sawaguchi Seio in 1848, which was Edo (or Tokugawa) period. It is a flat map and its dimensions are 91.4X96.5cm. However, it is a three-dimensional map at the same time, because the middle part of the map could be folded like a cone shape. It looks like real Mount Fuji when it is folded. Moreover, middle part of the left side of the map could be flipped. When it is flipped, there is another monochrome image. Overall, the map is showing an aerial view of Mount Fuji, and many religious features, such as pilgrims, figures of Buddha and monks, are indicated on the map.

Dainihon Fujisan zetchô no zu .jpg

Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu (大日本富士山絶頂之圖) – It means a ‘Map of the summit of Mount Fuji.’ This map was created by Utagawa Sadahide in 1857, which was also Edo (or Tokugawa) period. It is a flat map and its dimensions are 36.0X76.0cm. It becomes a piece of completed map when three different parts are connected. Overall, the map is showing a panoramic view of crater of Mount Fuji. There are many religious features as well, such as torii (とりい), pilgrims and fortress with figures of Buddha.

As it could be seen above, there are many similarities between the two maps. In this writing, religious background of Mount Fuji would be discussed. At the same time, similarities of the two maps, such as spot signals (paths to the summit), pilgrims and no appearance of woman, would be analyzed based on the religious background.

Religious background

Mount Fuji has been considered as a sacred presence to Japanese. As the great object of universal devotion, it influenced Japanese’s outlook on nature. Japanese looked up the mountain and worshiped when it had volcanic activity. When the activity finished, the faith toward mountain and imported foreign Buddhism were combined, and the mountain became a place of asceticism. Especially people aimed to go up to the top and walk through the path with worshipping their gods. After few years, normal people who were called as believers climbed the mountain to follow the ascetics. In the middle of Edo period, after 17th century, Fujiko was appeared and spread. Fujiko was kind a lesson that taught a doctrine of Fuji religion. Many of Fujiko believers worshipped with walking the foot of the mountain and Oshi houses were reorganized to support believers who climbed the mountain. Oshi houses offered a place to sleep and some foods.

A start of Mount Fuji religion – A long time ago, people formed a community or performed religious ceremony at the foot of the mountain. Around 8-9th century, people thought the repeating volcanic activities were anger of a god of fire ‘Asamano Okami(浅間大神).’ To clam her down, people started to worship her from a distance. They looked top of the mountain and prayed, and it became a custom. Because of the custom, a place was created in order to worship from afar, like Yamamiya sengen shrine. After 800 years, Mount Fuji kept repeating great volcanic activities. To calm it down, some shrines were built again to pay people’s respects to the souls of Asamano Okami.

Fuji religion became popular – Around 12th century, Mount Fuji’s volcanic activities were calm down. Men of religion who were called as ascetics climbed the mountain to get some power from gods because they believed Mount Fuji was a land of asceticism. On the top of the mountain, a base of religion was built along the wall of craters. Around the craters, there were eight peaks and people thought they were eight floral leaves of lotus. People went on a pilgrimage to the eight peaks and it was called ‘Ohachimeguri.’ Matsudai Shonin, who was famous for climbing the mountain the most, built a temple, which was named ‘Dainichiji,’ on the top of the mountain. Moreover, he built ‘Murayama sengen’ shrine and it was a base for practice asceticism among men of religion. After 14th century, normal people could be pilgrims and climbed the mountain to follow the ascetics. From the entrance of the mountain, trails were reorganized and communities were formed for the climbers.

Prosperity of Fuji religion – In 17th century, Fujiko was created that came from ‘Hasegawa Gaku’ religion. Fujiko was a group of people who were full with faiths. They worshipped Mount Fuji as making a pilgrimage to scared places in a foot of the mountain such as Saiko, Shojiko and Oshino Hatkai. There were known as Gaku religion’s asceticism places. In 18th century, Fujiko gained explosive popularity among normal people. Therefore, the number of climbers increased and Oshi houses were developed. As living at the Oshi houses, monks led and took care the believers. In the middle of 19th century, path of pilgrimage in Mount Fuji was not the only one. It should not have to walk through by turns. It was made with many routes, which could be walk with various purposes of pilgrimage.

Similarities between the two maps

There are many religious features on the two maps. For example, on Fujisan no zu, there are many pilgrims, two monks and figures of Buddha. There are rooms and features of Buddha are located in the rooms. People go into the room and pray. Also, there are many writings on the map and one of them, the Waka poem that is in the middle of the map includes religious meaning. It says, “If you climb Mount Fuji, there is a scared meaning.” In addition, on Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu, there are pilgrims who make a pilgrimage around the crater. Moreover,similar to Fujisan no zu, there are rooms and features of Buddha. People are praying to features of Buddha in fortresses. Furthermore, there are many toriis which look like a gate. They are usually located in front of shrine as a symbol of fortune. People believe that abusive things are changed to sacred through out the gate. They could be located in front of nature, then it means they worship the nature itself.

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Spot signals on Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu
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Spot signals on Fujisan no zu

Spot signals (paths to the summit) – On the both maps, there are yellow or red spot signals and path to the summit. The spot signals indicate spots’ name or sacred places. Moreover, there are many paths to the summit at Mount Fuji, however, there are only important or popular paths are indicated on the maps.

mig.jpeg
Konohana no Sakuya Hime

Konohana no Sakuya hime and No admittance to woman – Mountain Fuji’s also had a mountain spirit and it was a woman. Her name was ‘Konohana no Sakuya hime (コノハナノサクヤビメ)’ and she was a god of blooming flowers. As a god of mountain Fuji, she was enshrined at Shingen shrine. However, one ironic thing is, women could not climb the mountain and they were banned even though the mountain spirit was woman. On the two maps, woman could not be found and all people on the maps are men.

 

Works cited

Hashimoto, Sadahide, 1807-1873, and Seiō Sawaguchi. Fujisan no Zu, Vancouver (B.C.) : University of British Columbia. Library, 1848.

Utagawa, Sadahide, 1807-1873. Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetchō no Zu, Vancouver (B.C.) : University of British Columbia. Library, 1857.

Bernstein, Andrew. “Whose Fuji? Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol.” Monumenta Nipponica, vol. 63, no. 1, 2008, pp. 51-99.

Irons, Edward A. “Fuji, Mt. (Fuji san).” Encyclopedia of Buddhism, edited by J. Gordon Melton, Facts on File, 2008, pp. 208-209. Facts on File Library of Religion and Mythology: Encyclopedia of World Religions. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=ubcolumbia&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CCX4057500252&it=r&asid=4a4f3ebd714ee64b2600f5a915434628. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017.

Mountain Fuji and its Climbing Culture

As the most representative image of Japan, Mountain Fuji refers to “symbol of the Japanese soul” As the highest mountain in Japan with its elegant conical form, has become famous throughout the world and is considered the sacred symbol of Japan. Originally, the mountain’s name is uncertain and it first appears as Fuji no Yama in Hitachi no kunifudoki. According to record, the image of Fuji Mountain has been reproduced countless time in Japanese art, the painting, calligraphy or decorative visual arts produced in Japan over the centuries. Mountain Fuji played significant roles in the development of Japan through presenting national culture and religion. Every summer, there are thousands of Japanese climb to the shrine on its peak since they regard “climbing Fuji as a religious practice”(p.53.)

 

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大日本富士山絶頂之図 Tokukawa period 1857

“Dai Nihon Fujisan zetchō no zu” was published in 1857 (Tokukawa period). This was the full version of the Fuji Mountain view and in the middle area is the crater of the Mountain Fuji, on the side of the mountain there are many climbing paths were distributed, the climbing path of the mountain was constructed in order to help climber to walk easier. Every mountain hill has its own name which was labeled through the red color. There are also torii gates located on the top of the mountain, which is for people to do worship. Thus, the trend of climbing Fuji Mountain are more popularize in the commoner group in Edo period, since before that time, only nobility were permitted to visit the peak of Mountain and to celebrate ritual ceremony. In the middle of Edo period, the majority of farmers and businessmen would dedicate themselves to religious activities in order to achieve their dreams. They usually dress up with all white shirts, wear a bamboo hat and shaking bells with their hands and they also need to perform songs or scriptures while they are climbing up the mountain. The purpose of performing songs or scriptures is due to pray for supplication. One interesting thing is before people to climb up the mountain, they need to shower for a week in order to maintain their body and spirit in a pure mood. People were required to obtain a devout heart so that they could overcome all difficulties on the way they apparently can climb up the mountain.

 

Two significant factors about the development of the Fuji Mountain are; the reverence feeling of the Fuji Mountain, the reverence feeling of the natural landscape. Fuji Mountain had been always played significant roles over the decades of Japanese history. Based on the records of Shoku Nihonggi『続日本記』which is an imperially commissioned Japanese history text that has mentioned that “駿河国言、富士山下雨灰、灰之所及、木彫萎” by translation it is saying that as long as rain dust drops from the Fuji Mountain, all the plants would perish because of the rain dust from the Fuji Mountain. Wherever the dust drop on and it would destroy the greenery. Based on the map of Fuji Mountain, there are many rest stations distributed on the map. For example, almost every stage has a rest station which not only for people to take a break but it also implies them to walk slowly and think about their life carefully. There are many food vendors are located on the mountain as well in order to provide food and energy backup for all the climbers. The routes of the Fuji Mountain were divided into different stages and label them by numbers such as “the fist stage”. Meanwhile, the reinforce concrete wall is on the side of the mountain which is to prevent the landslide.

 

edo period

『富士山諸人参詣之図』二代・歌川国輝 画(1865年)

Reasons that why people in Edo Period are in possession of climbing Fuji Mountain is due to Asama Shrine, which is a shrine of faith mainly to Mountain Fuji. The purpose is to praise the God of the Asama Shrine. In the early time of Japan, Buddhism was drawn into the Japanese history, though some Chinese sources place the first spreading of the religion earlier during the Confucian period and Buddhism has played a significance role influence on the development of Japanese society and maintains its influential culture until today. However, Japanese still maintain their identity beliefs such as Shintoism. People who live nearby the mountain used to always worry about the volcanic eruption and they cannot live a peaceful life. So that they begin to stage some ritual activities in order to pray for protection from the god. One of the most important factors for the faith of the Mountain Fuji was due to people always obtained a great reverence for the natural world.

 

圣德太子。。

聖徳太子絵伝 延久本 平安時代 1069

There are also some artworks that involved Mountain Fuji such as Pictorial Biography of Prince Shōtoku. The Prince Shōtoku who was the first person compose Japan’s first constitution and obtain high reputation and admiration in the historical of Japan. In the Pre-Edo Period, there is a tale about Prince Shōtoku jumping up to the Fuji Mountain by riding a mythical horse, and this biographical picture reveals partially deed that Prince Shōtoku’s contribution during his entire life, the biography was mainly recorded all his contribution. Also, this picture is the first picture in the historical point of view to mention about Mountain Fuji.Based on the Pre-Edo period works, as we can see the culture phenomenon of Fuji Mountain has not been formed yet, at that time Mountain Fuji is just for people to worship and praise. We can find a lot of artworks about Fuji Mountain.

 

Climbing_on_Mt._Fuji

『富嶽三十六景』 葛飾北斎 1830

For example, Group of Mountain Climbers; the first fujizuka was established by members of a group known as a Fuji kō, which is an association dedicated to the ascent of Mount Fuji as the religious practice. Each Fuji kō raise funds to donation annual pilgrimages in which one-fifth to one-third of the members would participate, thus by the end of three to five years all of the members would have completed the climb at least once. Since these short trips were religious in nature, members would first visit Sengen Shrine at the foot of the mountain and perform ablutions. Then they climb the mountain in the white clothes of religious ascetics and pay respect at the shrine at the top of the mountain. After that, the group would descend along a different route to one of the towns at the foot of the mountain, where they would enjoy food, drink, and entertainment. With a group of 20 or 30 pilgrims, a professional guide, and a set itinerary that included lodgings, these trips might be regarded as the Edo-period equivalent of today’s package tours.

In conclusion, Mountain Fuji played a significant role in the history of Japan since it has always been dedicating into the artworks and literature filed. As one of the most representative landscapes of Japan, Mount Fuji also obtains higher reputation around the world. Not only because it has splendid view of the landscape but it also becomes to cultural heritage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Bernstein, Andrew. 2008. Whose fuji? religion, region, and state in the fight for a national symbol. Monumenta Nipponica 63 (1): 51-99.

 

第三版日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)世界大百科事典内言及, %. %. (n.d.). 富士講(ふじこう)とは. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from https://kotobank.jp/word/%E5%AF%8C%E5%A3%AB%E8%AC%9B-124413

 

富士山の歴史と文化. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from     http://3776.jp/rekishi/index.html

 

富士山噴火史. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2017, from http://www.fujigoko.tv/mtfuji/vol1/

 

Takashina Shūji (2012, Jan. 2 ) Mount Fuji in Edo Arts and Minds. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from http://www.nippon.com/en/currents/d00021/

 

 

the Forbidden City and Heian Imperial Palace

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The Forbidden City is one of the most famous palaces in the world, and the biggest palace within China, and as the residence of the royal family, the Forbidden City experienced twenty-four emperors and their families. The Dadairi Palace of Heian Period in Japan also provided private residence for the royal family, and both Palaces imitate the construction style of the Chang’an City, which is the royal residence of Sui Dynasty (581-618) and Tang Dynasty (618-907). In the following essay, I am going to compare the main palaces of the two royal Palaces and the functions of the palaces.

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Chang’an City is in square-shape, and the whole city is a symmetry construction that separated into west and east sections by a main street called “ Zhuque”, and at the north of the city, the Imperial Palace was placed on the end of the north axes, the palace is divided into the Front Court and the Back Court, three main halls in the Front Court, and one main halls surrounded with other smaller halls were located in the Back Court. In addition, the palace was surrounded by nine gates.

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The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to the end of Qing Dynasty (1636-1912) and was the heart of civilization for nearly five hundred years. Zhu Di the emperor of Ming Dynasty was the one who decided to tear down the old Kublai Khan’s palace and built the new Forbidden City, and enhanced the Great Wall at the same time. The construction of the Forbidden City took fourteen years after ten-year preparation, and there are nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine rooms and half inside the palace. It is said there were ten thousand rooms in the heavenly palace, the mortal palace should not have more rooms than heavenly palace, in case of offending immortals, therefore the Forbidden City was built with half room smaller. The whole Palace is shaped in a large rectangular and separated by the high walls and the moat from the rest of west Beijing, people can only see the gold roof from the outside. As the largest wooden complex in the world, and was completed in year 1420, some of the building technique remains mystery.

Similar to the Chang’an Palace, the whole Forbidden City is divided into two parts, the outer (front) Court for ceremonial purpose and the inner (back) Court for living purpose. The main palaces are all seating on the symmetry axes. And the first three great halls on the axes are the heart of the outer Court, which standing on high marble stairs that raised on more than two stories above the court yard. The entrance of the outer Court called the main Meridian Gate, placed on south end of the Palace, which is the tallest gate of the Forbidden City with five small gates, the central gate is for emperors only, and sometimes offers to the greatest scholars, and after the entrance gate is the Gate of Supreme Harmony, the courtyard that the emperor gathered the highest government officials and held the courts, and after this gate is the first main hall called the Hall of Supreme Harmony, even it is the most important hall, but the hall is only used for the key events. Followed the Hall of Supreme Harmony is the Hall of Middle (central) Harmony, the reason of why this hall used the name of “middle”, is “middle” means unbiased, only being free from prejudice can achieve harmonies and progresses. The function of the Hall of Middle Harmony is a rest and preparation place for emperors before events. The last main hall is called the Hall of Preserving Harmony, in Ming Dynasty, this hall was used for changing for emperors, but during Qing Dynasty, being specifically when after Qianlong emperor, the placed started to held national examinations every four years. What is more, besides the main halls located on the central axes, the section on the west of the axes is called the Hall of Military Eminence, and on the east, is the Hall of Literary Glory, it is obvious that the civil officials and the military officials are separated. In additional, two more gates are placed on west and east sides of the front Court for the officials.

Following the symmetric axes of the palace to the north, the next construction is the third gate called Gate of Heavenly Purity, which is the entrance of the inner Court. Different from the front Court, back Court has more rooms and many private courtyard are created by concubines and members of the imperial house. And after the Gate of Heavenly Purity, only three palaces remain on the south-north axes, which are the Palace of Heavenly Purity, Hall of Union, and Palace of Earthly Tranquility, which are the residences respectively for the emperor, the empress and the emperor’s mother. Then the last gate on the axes at the north is the Gate of Divine Might. And like the outer Court, the inner Court is also divided into left and right sections by the central palaces, but the there is no distinction of the west and east Courts, they are all for the royal family members, maidens and eunuchs.

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In Heian Period (749-1185), the capital city (Heian-kyo) was also learnt from Chang’an City, since it was the period that influenced deeply by Chinese culture, and the capital was divided into west and east city by a main street, and at the north end of the city was the Imperial Palace. significantly, reassembly to the Chang’an Imperial Palace and the Forbidden Palace, after two Gates on the south end, three main halls seated on the axes of the Front Court for emperors dealing with government affairs, officials worked at west and east sides of the Front Court, moreover, the west front court and the east front Court had resemblances, both Forbidden City and Dadairi chose to separate military departments and civil departments, and arranged military officials on the west and civil officials on the east, and this arrangement was learning from Chang’an Palace. Following the north-south axes, the inner Court was after the three main halls, and several main halls located on the axes provided the living halls for the emperor and empress, and on the west and east of the main hall were the residences for royal members and servants. Finally, the Gate at the north of the palace separated the whole Palace from the rest of the Heian-kyo.

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According to the Tale of Genji (Genji Monogatari), a literature written between 1001-1008, desicribed the imperial life of Genji, who is a son of an ancient Janpanese emperor, and lived in the Imperial Palace of Heian period, it is a love story about Genji and his concubines, on the other hand the book introduced the imperial life of Heian period and showed the Heian Palace to the readers. The author is a female literary in Heian period, whose brother is a government official, even the name of the palace halls in the book were named mostly by plants and different from the real Palace, but the documentary illustrations of the palace in the novel, resemble to the real Imperial Palace in a large extent, which the Palace used three main halls divided the front Court into west and East, and one main hall separated the back Court into half and half, from Court for working and back Court for living. Therefore, the Tale of Genji also offered a reference of the construction of Heian Imperial Palace.

In conclusion, the two Imperial Palace both learnt from ancient city, Chang’an about it’s constructions and layouts of the official departments, and had the same symmetry structure, it is a good way to organize the function of the palace and keep a harmony, also both Palace lasted for a long period of time, which indicates the reasonable of the layouts. Besides the similarities, since the construction of the Forbidden City was more recent, the building technique was more advance, and the scale is bigger than the Dadairi Palace. As for the Dadairi Palace, it applied the symmetry layouts earlier and the Heian period was the first period that accepted outer culture and used into their country. Therefore, both Palace are the outstanding examples of Asian Imperial Palaces.

Bibliography
Baidu. “Baidu Baike.” Last modified March 27, 2017, http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=F-85YTMniYi6Zus5QqTCfqkjv63UA2Cyt05B50lg1xTmzx15wtL4s5rgzVs3maw9LDE_J0ojE9Pj5kqngzZ0ccrzbNhQYTmEPNVb-pRpkDOO5DH9Vv1nP_fSrhOQyA5Kf-FyMnHfi5hwtpEAhKok6-ajCW2x7DNLb9sxeEY_is-s1SusEcRa0fBti4V6IYKZ
Jinglun Wan, The Forbidden City: A City in the City (Beijing: The Forbidden City, 2014), 1-249.
The Palace Museum. “Time Travel in the Forbidden City.” Last modified March 27, 2017, http://www.dpm.org.cn/shtml/shtml/115/@/9036.html#480#62#73
Baidu. “Baidu Wenku.” Last modified March 27,2017, https://wenku.baidu.com/view/6c212aa0f524ccbff121843a.html
Youtube. “National Geography.” last modified March 27, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_kNbSxdA4w
Wikipedia. “Forbidden City.” Last modified March 27, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forbidden_City
Shenlituxing. “Kyoto: Japanese Ancient Capital with Thousand Years History” Sina Blog (2010), accessed March 27, 2017. http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_3f62a1c60100noz7.html
Murasaki Shikibu. The Tale of Genji. Translated by Royall Tyler. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Wikipedia. “Heian Period.” Last modified March 27, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heian_period

The Moon Rising over Matsushima

One aspect of Matsushima that Bashō references as being particularly beautiful is the moon rising over it.  He contemplates the moon rising over the islands before beginning his journey. He comments on the rising moon reflecting on the sea, and then seeks out lodging. In his room, he describes looking out the window as filling him with mystery and wonder, and his companion Sora writes a poem…Continue reading

Yoshu_Chikanobu_Matsushima_in_Rikuzen_Province

Bridges in Japanese Gardens

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Traditional Japanese gardens, like the Nitobe Garden at UBC, are very different than traditional Western Gardens. According to Polat and Kaklik, “the role of the visitors in Japanese garden is important. The paths in gardens should provide wide sceneries to the visitors. Because of this, creation of scenery in the gardens its the first aim of its design” (441).

The Nitobe Garden is the Chisen kaiyu style which means that it is a stroll garden featuring a path around a pond. Objects are one of the four elements in a traditional Japanese garden. Objects, such as a bridge, provide a scenery characteristic. Bridges can be made out of stone, mud, and wood. “Bridges are elements, which both provide the facility of passing the water and watching the landscape in the gardens” (444).

As you enter the Nitobe Garden you can immediately see the bridge that allows you to walk from the pagoda to the other side of the pond. Made from wood and covered by gravel it blends in with the path depending on the position of the visitor. In Japanese gardens “various shapes of bridges make the garden gain a picturesque character”. Nitobe’s bridge has a steep arc that makes it a statement, but also doesn’t disrupt the flow of the path or garden. Many bridges are designed in the shape of arcs in Japanese gardens according to Polat and Kaklik are to,  “form a complete circle by reflecting on the water” (444).

Nitobe has a beautiful representation of example of the bridge convention in traditional Japanese gardens.

 

 

Works cited:

Polat, A. T., Güngör, S., & Kaklik, N. (2010). KYOTO JAPANESE GARDEN IN KONYA, TURKEY THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF JAPANESE GARDENS. Prostor, 18(2), 438-451.

Bankoku-sōzu

sozu map1           cdm.tokugawa.1-0213137.0000full

Schuyler Lindberg:
(Description on UBC Library website)

  • This double-sided Japanese woodcut displays a world map on the front and illustrated examples of the peoples of the world on the verso.
  • It exemplifies the Bankoku-sōzu (“complete maps of the peoples of the world”) style of cartography influenced by European techniques and geographic knowledge in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Source: http://digitize.library.ubc.ca/digitizers-blog/bankoku-sozu/

One of the most significant and representable Japanese maps from the Tokugawa Era of Japan is the Bankoku-sōzu (萬國総圖). The map was printed from woodblocks format in Nagasaki, Japan and published in approximately 1645. This woodcut map displays a world map during the era on one side and illustration of peoples of the world on the other. As a viewer, we do not only see the locations and countries but also much astronomical information that was collected during and before the Tokugawa Era. Therefore, Bankoku-sōzu is more than just a normal map.

The Bankoku-sōzu was also called “The Complete Map of the Peoples of the World” and it was the first and earliest modern world map published in Japan. On the world map side, we can see a very similar illustration of the map of the world as we have in present days. We can see the continents and locate many countries. On the other side of the map, it has the illustrations of male and female couples from 40 different countries wearing their own traditional clothing. It does not only include existing countries such as, Portugal, England, Holland, India, Taiwan, Japan, and many more, but it also includes people from some of the imaginary places and countries like, the Dwarves and the Giants.

‘Japanese cartography too was based on Chinese scholarship, and was also influenced by European techniques through the Jesuits and their dissemination of Ricci’s work. (Bankoku-sōzu) is an example from 1645 of these Westernized Bankoku-sōzu (“complete maps of the peoples of the world”); which were printed in Nagasaki and spread around the Japanese market in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Dutch maps also heavily influenced the Japanese Nanban (“southern barbarian”) map genre.’ (Wintle 36) Therefore, in this project, we will take a deeper look on how did the Dutch and Chinese influence cartography and the making of Bankoku-sōzu.

dutch flag + china flag → Flag_of_Japan_(bordered).png

Japan & Netherlands:

The history of the interaction and relationship between Japan and the Netherlands go way back to the beginning of the 17th century when the first Dutch ship, “Liefde” arrived in Japan. When the Liefde arrived on April 19, 1600, the Japanese showed great interest in the ship.

Liefde dutch in nagasaki.jpg
The first Dutch Ship arrived in Japan: “Liefde”

Source: http://www.artelino.com/articles/dutch_nagasaki.asp?med=print

The military ruler, Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康) wanted to know more about its firearms that it was carrying onboard. “Will Adams was the captain of the Liefde. By and by he managed to win the confidence of Tokugawa Ieyasu inspire of the interference of the Portuguese, who denounced the Dutch as pirates. This was the beginning of exclusive trade relations between Japan and the Dutch East India Company that would last for nearly 250 years.” (Wanczura 2013) Ieyasu gave permission for the crew to stay in Japan. Some of the Dutch crew then started careers with their valuable knowledge of understanding of maps, navigation, shipbuilding, welfare, and etc. This was when the Dutch cartography technique first established in Japan. Also, the relationship between Dutch and Japan kept growing afterwards.

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康 1543-1616), the Millitary ruler who showed great interest in Liefde.

Source: http://www.japanvisitor.com/famous-japanese-people/tokugawa-ieyasu

The Dutch East India Company (VOC):

In addition, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) had an important role in this relationship. The VOC was uniting many smaller trading companies into the one big organization that could ease the trading business and help them to lead the world’s trading businesses. Dutch government also permitted the VOC to initiate building relationships with foreign authorities. They then were allowed to trade in all Japanese ports. During that time, the Dutch were first one to be able to comply with Tokugawa’s hopes in the early 17th century, when two ships formed the first official Dutch VOC delegation to Japan. ‘The Dutch East India Company arrived this time with two ships, commanded by Nicholas Puyck, which had been detached from a 13 ships fleet which had left Amsterdam in December, 1607. Puyck’s ships, ‘Roode Leeuw met Pijlen’ and “Griffioen”, carrying a modest cargo of silk, pepper and lead. They were led directly to Hirado by two Japanese pilots, There, they received official trading privileges and encouragement to set up a factory.’ (Pflederer)

voc-heading

Source: http://v1.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/organisations/voc/voc.htm

Nagasaki Woodblock Prints:

Another unique part of Bankoku-sōzu is that is formed by Nagasaki woodblock prints. “Compared with the prints from Edo, they are rather primitive design and applied techniques. These prints were already made in the 17th century; in most cases town plans were printed. Not earlier than the mid-18th century, the publishing firm Hiriya publishes the first print on which a Dutchman is depicted.” (Swean 2016) After Bankoku-sōzu, the woodblock prints were more common in Japanese cartography.

Dutch continuous influences:

We can see that the European, especially the Dutch had influenced the Japanese cartography so much ever since the 17th century and onward. Michael Winetle also states in his book, “From the mid-eighteenth century the Dutch influence became even stronger through the promotion of Dutch Studies (Rangaku) in Japan, at a time when the Western presence was confined to the Dutch merchants in Nagaski harbor. So despite its isolation from the West, Japan actually had a plenteous supply of European influence on its cartography over several centuries, as well as its own Chinese-derived and religious mapping traditions.” (Winetle 37)

The Chinese influences:

matteo ricci.jpg
Portrait of Missionary Matteo Ricci, Italian-born Jesuit priest who created Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖)

Source: http://www.arthermitage.org/Painting/Portrait-of-the-Missionary-Matteo-Ricci.html 

We shall also look at how was Bankoku-sōzu made back then. The person who contributed the most in making this map was the Italian-born Jesuit priest, Matteo Ricci who was the first Westerner admitted to Beijing, China and the Forbidden City. He can be considered as one of the must influencetial person to the development of Japanese cartography from China. One of his most well known maps, “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” (坤輿萬國全圖) was issued in 1602 and it was the first European world map in Chinese. He published this map with the knowledge he gained when he was in China. The result of Ricci’s maps being introduced to Japan after his death brought improvement on the Japanese geography and cartography knowledge. Beforehand, the Japanese believed that China, Japan, and India were the three main countries of the world; however as the European culture slowly developed in Japan, Ricci’s maps acted like a catalyst to help the Japanese to realized there is also a civilized Western world aside from China, Japan, and India. The Chinese or Hanzi titles of “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” and “Bankoku-sōzu” have their similarities as well. Bankoku-sōzu also has the 萬國 in its name. The meaning of 萬國 is 10 thousands countries; which can also be all the countries in the world. The Bankoku-sōzu was also called the “Shoho map”, which “was a Japanese copy of a world map that an Italian missionary, Matteo Ricci, had made in China at the end of the 16th century. It was based on various Flemish and Dutch maps by Ortelius, Mercator, etc. Far into the 19th century it was frequently copied and reprinted so that gradually this 16th century world picture superseded the Buddhist three-culture map.” (Swean 2016)

坤輿萬國全圖.jpg
Matteo Ricci’s “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World” (坤輿萬國全圖)

Source: http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/financeestate/art/20120507/16313125

BankokuSozu1645.jpg
Bankoku-sōzu (萬國總圖)
* The alignment and placement of countries and continents are very similar to Matteo Ricci’s “A Map of the Myriad Countries of the World”.

Source: http://pda.smoliy.ru/antique_maps.php?m=447&pda=1

The 17th and 18th century was considered as the Era of Matteo Ricci’s map in the history of the Japanese cartography. This was an example of cartographic influences from the imperial China. The alignment and placement of countries and continents are very similar to maps that were created afterwards, Bankoku-sōzu is a great example. It simply had so much influence on the Japanese maps that were issued during the Tokugawa Era. One of the most significant examples must be the Bankoku-sōzu that was produced during the mid 17th century.

Act of Seclusion (1636):

Other than the Dutch and the European, the Chinese was also influential in the development of the Japanese cartography during the Tokugawa Era. At one point, the Shogunate re-advocated the relationships with China and Korea within the East Asian international structure by constraining the trade with Western nations. With the establishment of the “Act of Seclusion” in 1636, Japan had limited trades and interchanges with the Western world for the next two centuries. During those times, only the Dutch still maintained their access and relationships with Japan because they were allowed to keep a small outpost on an island in Nagasaki Harbour (Dutch knowledge and learning were “imported” into Japan through the translation of their books. The Japanese then developed themselves upon them throughout this period). However, aside from the Dutch, no other Western countries could maintain the trading relationship with Japan. Meanwhile, the trades continued within East Asia between the Japanese, Korean, and Chinese. In addition, China was located at the center of the structure.

dutch port
Right: Onaji dejima oranda yashiki (The Same: The Dutch Residence on Dejima), left: Oranda fune nyūtsu (The Dutch Ship Entering Port), from Nihon sankai meisan zue (Famous Products of Japan’s Mountains and Seas, Illustrated), 1799

Source: http://oursenseofplace.squarespace.com/-xxx-meisan-zue/

It will require another few thousands words to describe the influential role of the Chinese through the trading relations to the development of the Japan; “The first major account of cultural diffusion into Japanese culture, which can be found in recorded Japanese history, was between 206-to 700 A.D. during Japan’s Yayoi and Yamato period, by 200 A.D. Japan was slowly beginning trade negotiations with nearby China. There was a large contrast between Japan and its more modern trading partner. The Yayoi people of Japan were a tribal society, with the separate tribes spread across Japan.” (Baker)

When we are looking precisely on Japanese maps and geographic knowledge, they “were embedded in a larger framework of political and intellectual order, geography and cartography were never separated out as separate disciplines or fields of study in imperial China.” (Yonemoto 151) The Chinese had tied sciences, geography, arts, literature, and cartography altogether. Therefore, these elements would appear on their maps and the technique got to Japan through their trading relations. ‘On the influence on early modern Japanese mapping of the comprehensive maps of China made during the Qing dynasty with assistance from Jesuit missionaries (Matteo Ricci was one of the greatest examples), Ronald P. Toby has argued that in the Tokugawa lexicon of “foreign” concepts, Chinese ideas not only served as models for change, they functioned as a default mode in times of transition or stasis.’ (Yonemoto 151) In short, the Dutch and the Chinese participated the most in the development of the Japanese cartography in the Tokugawa Era.

Bibliography:

Baker, Mike. “Cultural Diffusion and Its Effects on Japan.” Samurai-archives.com. http://www.samurai-archives.com/cde.html.

Lindberg, Schuyler. “Bankoku sōzu.” Library.ubc.ca. http://digitize.library.ubc.ca/digitizers-blog/bankoku-sozu/ (accessed July 5th, 2012).

Pflederer, Richard. “Dutch and English ties in 17th centuryJapan.” Swaen.com. http://www.swaen.com/japanNedEng.html. (accessed 2016)

Schley, Harrison. “Our Sense of Place: A Place Is a Spectacle: A Description of the Arrival of a Dutch Trading Vessel in Edo-Period Nagasaki.” University of Pennsylvania. http://oursenseofplace.squarespace.com/-xxx-meisan-zue/

Swaen, Paulus. “400 YEAR JAPAN – THE NETHERLANDS.” Swaen.com. http://www.swaen.com/japanNED.php. (accessed 2016)

Swaen, Paulus. “The Mapping of Japan.” Swaen.com. https://www.swaen.com/japanMAP.php. (accessed 2016)

Wanczura, Dieter. “The Dutch in Nagasaki.” Artelino.com. http://www.artelino.com/articles/dutch_nagasaki.asp (updated April, 2013)

Wintle, Michael. Imagining Europe: Europe and European Civilisation as Seen from its Margins and by the Rest of the World, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Germany: P.I.E.-Peter Lang S.A; 1 edition , 2008.

Yonemoto, Marcia. Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period, 1603-1868. USA: University of California Press, April 21 2003.