posts

Edo Jo and Japanese Castle

 

The Japanese Castles

    The Japanese idea of Castles may not what we thought about castles( an individual building), they are actually whole compounds centered by the large multistory towers. It’s more like the idea of the palace. The Japanese castles were started in earlier centuries and made from wooden stockades. However, they were best known in the 16th century and made from wood and stone. This made the Japanese castles much stronger. There were two purposes of the Japanese castle, one is to defense the attacks, the other one is to display the wealth and power of lord. There were many key elements of the Japanese castles such as castle wall, bridges, gates, moats and castle towers. In addition, due to the defensive purpose, the minings, countermining and catapult bombardments were common to see in the Japanese castles. 

    There are totally three types of Japanese castles. The first one is mountaintop castles, it was called “Yamajiro” in Japanese. In the earlier century, the castles were mostly built on the top of mountains. One of the most significant reasons of this is the fortifications were not really advanced at that time. This made the terrain advantage extremely important to a castle. The mountaintop was easy to hold but hard to attack. Moreover, this type of castle not only provided a magnificent view but also shows the supremacy of lord.  The last but not least, the mountaintop castles are more easily to survive during the earthquakes.The Gifu castle and Iwakuni castle are excellent examples of the mountaintop castles. The two pictures below show the Gifu castle.

 
gifu-sky1.jpg
Figure 1: Gifu castle. Source:http://japanworld.info/blog/samurai-file-017-takenaka-hanbei/

 

kinkazan1.jpgFigure 2: view from Gifu castle. Source:https://japanbook.net/en/article/246

     The second type of Japanese castle is hill castles. They are also called hirayamajiro in Japanese. This type of castles was tended to build one the low mountain or big hill. It was started in the Sengoku period. This makes the location of castle more convenient. However, compare to the mountaintop castle, hill castle lack on view and more vulnerable to the earthquakes. As a result, the moats and walls around the castle were added during this time. In addition, for enhancing the defensive capability of the castle, there were more fortifications surround the castle.  One example of Japanese castle is Himeji castle. The picture below is Himeji castle.

hemeji.jpg
Figure 3:Himeji castle. Source: https://japandeluxetours.com/experiences/hyogo-himeji-castle

    The last type of castle is flatland castles. They are called hirajilo in Japanese. This type of castles started in the end Sengoku period and it was popular in Edo period. Since this type of castles was built in the flat area and it had no nature defense. As a result, it was always built really big.  However, this type of castles tended to bother by floods. The Edo castle is one of the flatland castles. There are many other flat castles such as Osaka castle and Nagoya castle. 

osaka-castle-2.jpgFigure 4: Osaka castle. Source:https://alk3r.wordpress.com/2014/02/20/osaka-castle-japan/
JapanNagoyaCastle.jpgFigur 5: Nagoya castle. Source:https://mydreamboardapp.com/items/1015

The Edo Jo

Edo_Castle.jpgFigure 6: Edo-Jo. Source:http://sengoku-period.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Edo_Castle_(1615)

 The Edo Jo is also called Chiyoda castle. As we said, it is a flatland castle. It was built by Ota Dokan in 1457. It “was one of the grandest and most elaborate castles in Japan.” I was well known for the ruggedness of the gates. 

Chronology

1457 The Ota clan constructed a castle here.
1524 The Hōjō clan seized control of the castle from the Uesugi clan.
1590 Tokugawa Ieyasu became lord of the castle.
1592 The Nishinomaru enclosure was completed.
1606 The Honmaru, Ninomaru, Sannomaru and the outer enclosures were completed.
1607 The main tower & the Kitanomaru enclosure were completed.
1611 The Nishinomaru enclosure was extended.
1623 The main tower was rebuilt.
1624 The Nishinomaru Palace was renovated. It burnt to the ground 10 years later.
1629 Expansion of the castle commenced. It was completed 7 years later.
1639 The Honmaru Palace burnt down. It was rebuilt the following year.
1657 The main tower & the buildings of several enclosures burnt down.
1659 The Honmaru Palace & the Fujimi Turret were reconstructed.
1747 The Ninomaru Palace burnt down. It had been rebuilt just six years prior.
1838 The Nishinomaru Palace burnt down. It was rebuilt the following year.
1844 The Honmaru Palace burnt down. It was rebuilt the following year.
1852 The Nishinomaru Palace burnt down. It was then rebuilt.
1859 The Honmaru Palace burnt down. It was rebuilt the following year.
1863 The Nishinomaru & the Honmaru Palaces burnt down. The Nishinomaru Palace was rebuilt the following year.
1867 The Ninomaru Palace burnt down.
1923 The Fujimi Turret collapsed in an earthquake.
1945 The Ote Gate burnt down in WWII bombing.
1967 The Ote Gate was reconstructed.
Source:http://www.japanese-castle-explorer.com/castle_profile.html?name=Edo

 

cdm.tokugawa.1-0223022.0000full.jpgFigure 7: Tokugawa map of Edo Jo.Source: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/tokugawa/items/1.0223022

Background of the map

    Figure 7 is the map I chose. It was created in 1854. It is a bird-eye-view map. Moreover, the colors of it are dusky. However, Some special places were used in bright colors. For example, the painter used red color to illustrate the gates and bridges. The blue color is used to illustrate moats. In addition, the yellow color is used to present the rooms. The four directions were given. Moreover, the map was drawn very detailedly. It not only contains the name of each room but also the true area. All of this information written into the Chinese characters.  The map wasn’t just planimetric map, it also illustrated the stone base of the building and windows for archers on the wall. 

View of Edo folding screen

a86a02eaa603b6e2e8df4ea6925da7a3.jpgFigure8:”View of Edo” (Edo zu) pair of six-panel folding screens (17th century)

    The screen is made by the 17th century. It combines by the left screen and right screen, each screen has 6 pieces, so totally there are 12 pieces. Each screen is 162.5 x 366.0 cm. The screen describes the Korean envoys came to the castle. It not only vivid in artistic expression but also has the historical value. It is treasuring up in the National museum of Japanese history and only displayed four weeks of a year (from later mid-April to mid-May) 

 

The Gates of Edo Jo

    The gates are the most important element of Edo Jo. As we see, It was illustrated by marked red in the Tokugawa maps of Edo Jo. The gates were not only the protection of castle but also seen as the symbols of power and authority. The size, materials, and design of a gate showed the power of lord. The gates of Edo Jo were basically made of wood. Since the castle was surrounded by the walls and moats, the gates were the breakthrough points during the war. As a result, the gates were used to be destroyed. Moreover, the gates tended to be preserved by soldiers. For example, the main gates such as Ote, tended to have 120 soldiers and sub-gates tended to have 30-70 soldiers.  If you interested in the gates of Edo Jo, there is an amazing album of Painting called”pictures of the 36 gates of the shogun’s castle in Yedo”

   19994919.jpegFigure8:http://blogs.harvard.edu/preserving/2014/11/14/the-36-gates-of-edo-castle/  

    This is the cover of “pictures of the 36 gates of the shogun’s castle in Yedo”. The words Yedo is the same as Edo. The album is published at the end of 19th century. Each painting of gate accomplished by the historical description.

 
19994962.jpeg Figure 10: https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:19994912$50i

19994963 (1).jpeg

                                                       
                     Figure11:http://blogs.harvard.edu/preserving/2014/11/14/the-36-gates-of-edo-castle/

     According to the description of album, This is “OTE-GOMON (THE MAIN CASTLE-GATE.) When the Shogun passed the gate, all the people were to be sent away (they being not allowed to take sight of the Shogun), except the Daimyo, who was the master of the guards, his Karo (1st class steward), and Rusui (a Daimyo s deputy keeping a castle or mansion).” (Bachmann ,2014)

 

19995055.jpegFigure12:http://blogs.harvard.edu/preserving/2014/11/14/the-36-gates-of-edo-castle/

    “The gate was called Hokuto-Kwaku (lit. : polar-star gate). The place outside the gate facing toward Hitotsugi was called Fujimi-Kwaku (probably from its having the view of the Mount Fuji)” (Bachmann, 2014)

19995031.jpegFigure13:http://blogs.harvard.edu/preserving/2014/11/14/the-36-gates-of-edo-castle/

“Since the disastrous fire, of 1806, which, however, did not destroy the gate or its bridge, the site of the residence of Matsudaira Noto-no-kami was made an open space for protection against fire.” (Bachmann)

Hormaru(御本丸)

    Hormaru means the central circle in Japanese, so it is the most inner and honorable place in the Castle. It contains the main tower and the residence of the lord. As we can see, in the “view of Edo” folding screen, the roofs and walls were inlaid by golden to show the honorable of the shogun

otemon-a0277742_12553553.jpgFigure14:https://japanthis.com/tag/edo-castle/

Donjon

Donjon is the central tower. It is an 11-meter-multistory tower. It was destroyed during Meireki fire in 1657. Moreover, it isn’t restructured. As a result, there is almost nothing left now. The two pictures below shows the Donjon before Meireki fire and after it.

044.jpgFigure 15: the undamaged Donjon. 

 

img_0
Figure 16: the fire of Meireki 

 

81_big.jpg

Figure 16: Donjon today.

 

Edo Jo today

Today, Edo Jo is part of the Tokyo Imperial palace.  Part of it can be visited by travelers, and it is free.

 

“Edo castle”的图片搜索结果Figure 17:Edo castle today

 

Contributor:August 

last post: 10th April 2017

 

 

Bibliography

  1. Turnbull, Stephen R., and Peter Dennis. Japanese castles, 1540-1640. Oxford: Osprey Pub.,     2008. Print.
  2. “Japanese Castles.” Japanese Castles. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017. http://www.jcastle.info/resources/view/14-Japanese- Castles
  3. “Edo Japan: A Virtual Tour — Edo-jo.” Edo Japan: A Virtual Tour — Edo-jo. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/edojo/frame.html
  4. O’Grady, Daniel. “Japanese Castle Explorer.” Japanese Castle Explorer – Edo Castle – 江戸城. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017. http://www.japanese-castle-explorer.com/castle_profile.html?name=Edo
  5. “THE SHELF.” THE SHELF RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 10. Apr. http://blogs.harvard.edu/preserving/2014/11/14/the-36-gates-of-edo-castle/

Shikoku Pilgrimage

 

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[1] 四国遍路情報サイト. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pilgrim-shikoku.net/

[2] 四国八十八ヶ所霊場会:四国八十八ヶ所霊場会公式ホームページ. (n.d.). Retrieved  April 10, 2017, from http://www.88shikokuhenro.jp/index.html

[3] Hur, N (2017). Lecture on The Shikoku Pilgrimage: Its History, Culture and Traditions, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

[4] Nosco, P (2016). Lecture on Shingon Buddhism, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

[5] Shikoku Temple Pilgrimage. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2017, from http://www.walkjapan.com/tour/shikoku-88-temple-pilgrimage/

Fujisan no zu

Introduce Mount Fuji


Mount Fuji is also known as Fujiyama, Fuji-YoNama andFujisan. It is a cone shaped volcanic mountain. Its last eruption happened in 1707. Mount Fuji is 12,388 feet and it is the highest mount of Japan. Mount Fuji as tall as the cloud. The top of the Mount is always full of snow. Mount Fuji is the most sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is located on the island of Honshu. (Whalen,2) Mount Fuji is the most famous mountain in Japan. Mount Fuji has added to the World Heritage Site in 2013. Mount Fuji is pilgrim place, and there are many literary works base on Mount Fuji. Therefore Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan, and it is very sacred.

Literary works based on the Mount Fuji

During Japanese era 713, Japanese starts write fudoki (風土記)that report provincial geography, culture, agriculture..Etc. There is one fodoki called “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki (常陸国風土記) “has records a story about Mount Fuji. There is a deity of heaven travel all around Japan. The deity visits Mount Fuji first. Mount Fuji refuses deity’s request to stay in Mount Fuji over night because Mount Fuji believes that it does not need deity’s blessing. Mount Fuji already has the perfect shape and the great peak. Then, the deity visits the Mount Tsukuba inside the Hitachi province. Mount Tsukuba lets deity stay and offering food humbly. As a result, Mount Fuji always has snow covering the peak, and it is always cold. On the other hand, Mount Tsukuba is very colorful with season changing.
Later, there are many legends about Mount Fuji come out. In the 10th century Japanese fiction prose narrative called “The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter(竹取物語)” . The books talks about a bamboo cutter called Taketori no Okina finds a little girl inside the bamboo when he cutting the bamboo. Taketori no Okina brings the little girl home. Taketori no Okina and his wife treat the little girl like their own daughter and name her Kaguya-hime which means “princess of flexible bamboos scattering light”. Three months later, the little girl grows up and the news of her beauty spread. Therefore, many young man come to Taketori no Okina and ask for marry Kaguya-hime. The emperor also become one of the man ask for marry Kaguya- hime. However, Kaguya-hime refuses all of them. Kaguya-hime is the fairy of the moon. And she has to go back to the moon on the august 15th on the third year. Before Kaguya-hime returns to the moon. Kaguya-hime leaves elixir of immortality for her parents. Taketori no Okina is does not live forever without his daughter. Taketori no Okina hands the elixir of immortality to the emperor. The emperor burns the elixir of immortality and the letter on the peak of the highest mountain. Therefore, the word immortality, Fushi不死(never dead) became the name of the mountain – Mount Fuji. Therefore, Japanese solider will have the figure of Mount Fuji on their clothes. Because they believe that Mount Fuji means Fushi.

The religion based on Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji used to be treat as a sacred mountain, because the volcanic eruption. People believe that Mount Fuji has the power of fire and water. (Earhar)
First, Mountain valued more because it is suitable for Buddhism practice. Around six century C.E. Japanese get influence from Chinese religion. During that time, Buddhism is the main religion in China. Taoist notions and Confucian ideas are also popular. Therefore, people believe that the best place for meditation is a flat area deep in the mountains base on the Buddhism sutra.(Earhar). So, mountain has more meaning.
Second, because there are building and rites are located on the mountain peak and mountainside. Therefore, climbing mountain is also a religious practice. For example, the Fuji pilgrimages. (Earhar). Mount. Fuji uses to be a sacred place that people can only look at but not able to climb because of the volcanic eruption. Later, climbing Mount Fuji has become a religious practice. The pilgrimage route to the summit of Mount Fuji had been established on fourteenth century. There are two cultic related to Mount Fuji: fire rituals and climbing the mountain.

During Edo period, A group of people whose purpose are climbing the mountain called Fuji-ko (富士講) performs fire ceremonies before people climbing mountain, and burn the mini straw replicas Mount Fuji. (Brockman, 355) Just like the picture below on the left side. During Edo period, some people might live too far away from Mount Fuji. They cannot afford to go to Mount Fuji, and women are not allowed to climb Mount Fuji. Therefore, people contribute a mini Mount Fuji on the direction of Mount Fuji, so they can pray to the mini Mount Fuji. (Brockman,355).
“Pilgrims starts at a shrine at the base of the mountain. Each of the routes has ten rest station…the most popular route has ninety-nine switchbacks.” (Brockman, 355). The six people on the right hand side of the picture are the people who are climbing the mountain.

Third, these later develop to express the mixture of tradition. (Earhar).
The key point of all the legend about Mount Fuji is Asama Shrine (浅間神社).”In Kakugyo’s time, the two chief religious institutions devoted to Mt. Fuji were the Fuji Sengen (or Asama) Shrine 富士浅間神社.”(Tyler,252). Asama Shrine still has 1300 branches nowadays. Therefore Asama shrine still have large influence in Japan as we can see from the number. During Edo period, there are many religions base on Mount Fuji. These religions are the new religions that mix Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, Assma Shrine also becomes a “bodhisattva” in Assma. Mount Fuji is very important in religions believes at that time. (Earhart)


“Fuji ascetic Kakugyo 角行 (書行藤佛)(1541- 1646), the founder of the Edo- period (1600-1868) cult of Mt. Fuji.” (Tyler, 252). During fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, society and religion are mix together because the warring state. “ The central message and key leader of Fuji religiosity came not from Murayama and its professional Shugendo priests but from the ranks of the common people – a wandering practitioner named Kakugyo.” (Earhart). Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is the right hand side figure of the two mountain ascetics featured on the map. The name Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is meaningful. Kaku means “square”, Gyo means “practice” , To can be read as “fuji”, Butsu is the name of the Buddham and Ku means honor. Therefore, the name Kakugyo Tobutsu Ku means square, fuji, practice buddham and honor.

Kakugyo Tobustu Ku has two famous disciples. One is Jikigyo Miroku 食行身禄 (1671-1733)and Murakami Kosei 村上光清 (1682-1759. These two people are reat sixth-generation successors that turned the cult in to a mass movement. (Tyler, 253). Jikigyo Miroku is the figure above that on the left side. Miroku means maitreya 弥勒 in Buddhism which is the Buddha who is to come. Jikigyo Miroku get the name Miroku 身禄 from Fuji deity directly (Tyler,261). Jikigyo Miroku’s death launched the Fuji cult as a mass movement. Jikigyo fasted to death on the height of Mt.Fuji. Jikigyo Miroku uses his death to feed the world. (Tyler, 261)

During that time, Japan has many religion bases on the nature worship. The religion base on the nature worship still has influence till now. All these worship and religions is the people want to have some supernatural that can help their life, make their dream come true by using an fantasy way. That is the original Japanese religions. It related to Earhart has mention: “ At Fuji, as is true within all of Japanese religion, power- even destructive force – may be venerated as well as feared, worshipped at the same time as it is pacified. “ (Asasm shirne)

In conclusion, Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan. There are many literary works and legend stories base on Mount Fuji. Later, there are religion base on Mount Fuji that is a mixture of Shintoism, Buddhism, Taoism and some folk belief. All these elements reflect that the relationship between Mount Fuji and Japanese.

Reference:
1.Whalen, Ken. Fuji,Mount. Sage knowledge, 2017,
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4135/9781412953924.n437. Access Mar 26 2017.
2.Earhart,Byron. Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan. The University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
3.Brockman,Nobert C. Encyclopedia of sacred places. 2011.
4. Tyler Royall, The Book of the Great Practice: The Life of the Mt. Fuji Ascetic Kakugyō Tōbutsu Kū. Nanzan University, 1993.

Fujisan no zo

Introduce Mount Fuji

cdm.tokugawa.1-0216508.0000full.jpg

Mount Fuji is also known as Fujiyama, Fuji-YoNama andFujisan. It is a cone shaped volcanic mountain. Its last eruption happened in 1707. Mount Fuji is 12,388 feet and it is the highest mount of Japan. Mount Fuji as tall as the cloud. The top of the Mount is always full of snow. Mount Fuji is the most sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is located on the island of Honshu. (Whalen,2) Mount Fuji is the most famous mountain in Japan. Mount Fuji has added to the World Heritage Site in 2013. Mount Fuji is pilgrim place, and there are many literary works base on Mount Fuji. Therefore Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan, and it is very sacred.

Literary works based on the Mount Fuji

During Japanese era 713, Japanese starts write fudoki (風土記)that report provincial geography, culture, agriculture..Etc. There is one fodoki called “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki (常陸国風土記) “has records a story about Mount Fuji. There is a deity of heaven travel all around Japan. The deity visits Mount Fuji first. Mount Fuji refuses deity’s request to stay in Mount Fuji over night because Mount Fuji believes that it does not need deity’s blessing. Mount Fuji already has the perfect shape and the great peak. Then, the deity visits the Mount Tsukuba inside the Hitachi province. Mount Tsukuba lets deity stay and offering food humbly. As a result, Mount Fuji always has snow covering the peak, and it is always cold. On the other hand, Mount Tsukuba is very colorful with season changing.
Later, there are many legends about Mount Fuji come out. In the 10th century Japanese fiction prose narrative called “The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter(竹取物語)” . The books talks about a bamboo cutter called Taketori no Okina finds a little girl inside the bamboo when he cutting the bamboo. Taketori no Okina brings the little girl home. Taketori no Okina and his wife treat the little girl like their own daughter and name her Kaguya-hime which means “princess of flexible bamboos scattering light”. Three months later, the little girl grows up and the news of her beauty spread. Therefore, many young man come to Taketori no Okina and ask for marry Kaguya-hime. The emperor also become one of the man ask for marry Kaguya- hime. However, Kaguya-hime refuses all of them. Kaguya-hime is the fairy of the moon. And she has to go back to the moon on the august 15th on the third year. Before Kaguya-hime returns to the moon. Kaguya-hime leaves elixir of immortality for her parents. Taketori no Okina is does not live forever without his daughter. Taketori no Okina hands the elixir of immortality to the emperor. The emperor burns the elixir of immortality and the letter on the peak of the highest mountain. Therefore, the word immortality, Fushi不死(never dead) became the name of the mountain – Mount Fuji. Therefore, Japanese solider will have the figure of Mount Fuji on their clothes. Because they believe that Mount Fuji means Fushi.

The religion based on Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji used to be treat as a sacred mountain, because the volcanic eruption. People believe that Mount Fuji has the power of fire and water. (Earhar)
First, Mountain valued more because it is suitable for Buddhism practice. Around six century C.E. Japanese get influence from Chinese religion. During that time, Buddhism is the main religion in China. Taoist notions and Confucian ideas are also popular. Therefore, people believe that the best place for meditation is a flat area deep in the mountains base on the Buddhism sutra.(Earhar). So, mountain has more meaning.
Second, because there are building and rites are located on the mountain peak and mountainside. Therefore, climbing mountain is also a religious practice. For example, the Fuji pilgrimages. (Earhar). Mount. Fuji uses to be a sacred place that people can only look at but not able to climb because of the volcanic eruption. Later, climbing Mount Fuji has become a religious practice. The pilgrimage route to the summit of Mount Fuji had been established on fourteenth century. There are two cultic related to Mount Fuji: fire rituals and climbing the mountain.

453 2.pic.jpg

During Edo period, A group of people whose purpose are climbing the mountain called Fuji-ko (富士講) performs fire ceremonies before people climbing mountain, and burn the mini straw replicas Mount Fuji. (Brockman, 355) Just like the picture below on the left side. During Edo period, some people might live too far away from Mount Fuji. They cannot afford to go to Mount Fuji, and women are not allowed to climb Mount Fuji. Therefore, people contribute a mini Mount Fuji on the direction of Mount Fuji, so they can pray to the mini Mount Fuji. (Brockman,355).
“Pilgrims starts at a shrine at the base of the mountain. Each of the routes has ten rest station…the most popular route has ninety-nine switchbacks.” (Brockman, 355). The six people on the right hand side of the picture are the people who are climbing the mountain.

Third, these later develop to express the mixture of tradition. (Earhar).
The key point of all the legend about Mount Fuji is Asama Shrine (浅間神社).”In Kakugyo’s time, the two chief religious institutions devoted to Mt. Fuji were the Fuji Sengen (or Asama) Shrine 富士浅間神社.”(Tyler,252). Asama Shrine still has 1300 branches nowadays. Therefore Asama shrine still have large influence in Japan as we can see from the number. During Edo period, there are many religions base on Mount Fuji. These religions are the new religions that mix Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, Assma Shrine also becomes a “bodhisattva” in Assma. Mount Fuji is very important in religions believes at that time. (Earhart)

4535.pic.jpg

“Fuji ascetic Kakugyo 角行 (書行藤佛)(1541- 1646), the founder of the Edo- period (1600-1868) cult of Mt. Fuji.” (Tyler, 252). During fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, society and religion are mix together because the warring state. “ The central message and key leader of Fuji religiosity came not from Murayama and its professional Shugendo priests but from the ranks of the common people – a wandering practitioner named Kakugyo.” (Earhart). Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is the right hand side figure of the two mountain ascetics featured on the map. The name Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is meaningful. Kaku means “square”, Gyo means “practice” , To can be read as “fuji”, Butsu is the name of the Buddham and Ku means honor. Therefore, the name Kakugyo Tobutsu Ku means square, fuji, practice buddham and honor.

Kakugyo Tobustu Ku has two famous disciples. One is Jikigyo Miroku 食行身禄 (1671-1733)and Murakami Kosei 村上光清 (1682-1759. These two people are reat sixth-generation successors that turned the cult in to a mass movement. (Tyler, 253). Jikigyo Miroku is the figure above that on the left side. Miroku means maitreya 弥勒 in Buddhism which is the Buddha who is to come. Jikigyo Miroku get the name Miroku 身禄 from Fuji deity directly (Tyler,261). Jikigyo Miroku’s death launched the Fuji cult as a mass movement. Jikigyo fasted to death on the height of Mt.Fuji. Jikigyo Miroku uses his death to feed the world. (Tyler, 261)

During that time, Japan has many religion bases on the nature worship. The religion base on the nature worship still has influence till now. All these worship and religions is the people want to have some supernatural that can help their life, make their dream come true by using an fantasy way. That is the original Japanese religions. It related to Earhart has mention: “ At Fuji, as is true within all of Japanese religion, power- even destructive force – may be venerated as well as feared, worshipped at the same time as it is pacified. “ (Asasm shirne)

In conclusion, Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan. There are many literary works and legend stories base on Mount Fuji. Later, there are religion base on Mount Fuji that is a mixture of Shintoism, Buddhism, Taoism and some folk belief. All these elements reflect that the relationship between Mount Fuji and Japanese.

Reference:
1.Whalen, Ken. Fuji,Mount. Sage knowledge, 2017,
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4135/9781412953924.n437. Access Mar 26 2017.
2.Earhart,Byron. Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan. The University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
3.Brockman,Nobert C. Encyclopedia of sacred places. 2011.
4. Tyler Royall, The Book of the Great Practice: The Life of the Mt. Fuji Ascetic Kakugyō Tōbutsu Kū. Nanzan University, 1993.

Fujisan no zu

Introduce Mount Fuji

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Mount Fuji is also known as Fujiyama, Fuji-YoNama andFujisan. It is a cone shaped volcanic mountain. Its last eruption happened in 1707. Mount Fuji is 12,388 feet and it is the highest mount of Japan. Mount Fuji as tall as the cloud. The top of the Mount is always full of snow. Mount Fuji is the most sacred mountain. Mount Fuji is located on the island of Honshu. (Whalen,2) Mount Fuji is the most famous mountain in Japan. Mount Fuji has added to the World Heritage Site in 2013. Mount Fuji is pilgrim place, and there are many literary works base on Mount Fuji. Therefore Mount Fuji is the representative of Japan, and it is very sacred.

Literary works based on the Mount Fuji

During Japanese era 713, Japanese starts write fudoki (風土記)that report provincial geography, culture, agriculture..Etc. There is one fodoki called “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki (常陸国風土記) “has records a story about Mount Fuji. There is a deity of heaven travel all around Japan. The deity visits Mount Fuji first. Mount Fuji refuses deity’s request to stay in Mount Fuji over night because Mount Fuji believes that it does not need deity’s blessing. Mount Fuji already has the perfect shape and the great peak. Then, the deity visits the Mount Tsukuba inside the Hitachi province. Mount Tsukuba lets deity stay and offering food humbly. As a result, Mount Fuji always has snow covering the peak, and it is always cold. On the other hand, Mount Tsukuba is very colorful with season changing.
Later, there are many legends about Mount Fuji come out. In the 10th century Japanese fiction prose narrative called “The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter(竹取物語)” . The books talks about a bamboo cutter called Taketori no Okina finds a little girl inside the bamboo when he cutting the bamboo. Taketori no Okina brings the little girl home. Taketori no Okina and his wife treat the little girl like their own daughter and name her Kaguya-hime which means “princess of flexible bamboos scattering light”. Three months later, the little girl grows up and the news of her beauty spread. Therefore, many young man come to Taketori no Okina and ask for marry Kaguya-hime. The emperor also become one of the man ask for marry Kaguya- hime. However, Kaguya-hime refuses all of them. Kaguya-hime is the fairy of the moon. And she has to go back to the moon on the august 15th on the third year. Before Kaguya-hime returns to the moon. Kaguya-hime leaves elixir of immortality for her parents. Taketori no Okina is does not live forever without his daughter. Taketori no Okina hands the elixir of immortality to the emperor. The emperor burns the elixir of immortality and the letter on the peak of the highest mountain. Therefore, the word immortality, Fushi不死(never dead) became the name of the mountain – Mount Fuji. Therefore, Japanese solider will have the figure of Mount Fuji on their clothes. Because they believe that Mount Fuji means Fushi.

The religion based on Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji used to be treat as a sacred mountain, because the volcanic eruption. People believe that Mount Fuji has the power of fire and water. (Earhar)
First, Mountain valued more because it is suitable for Buddhism practice. Around six century C.E. Japanese get influence from Chinese religion. During that time, Buddhism is the main religion in China. Taoist notions and Confucian ideas are also popular. Therefore, people believe that the best place for meditation is a flat area deep in the mountains base on the Buddhism sutra.(Earhar). So, mountain has more meaning.
Second, because there are building and rites are located on the mountain peak and mountainside. Therefore, climbing mountain is also a religious practice. For example, the Fuji pilgrimages. (Earhar). Mount. Fuji uses to be a sacred place that people can only look at but not able to climb because of the volcanic eruption. Later, climbing Mount Fuji has become a religious practice. The pilgrimage route to the summit of Mount Fuji had been established on fourteenth century. There are two cultic related to Mount Fuji: fire rituals and climbing the mountain.
During Edo period, A group of people whose purpose are climbing the mountain called Fuji-ko (富士講) performs fire ceremonies before people climbing mountain, and burn the mini straw replicas Mount Fuji. (Brockman, 355) Just like the picture below on the left side. During Edo period, some people might live too far away from Mount Fuji. They cannot afford to go to Mount Fuji, and women are not allowed to climb Mount Fuji. Therefore, people contribute a mini Mount Fuji on the direction of Mount Fuji, so they can pray to the mini Mount Fuji. (Brockman,355).
“Pilgrims starts at a shrine at the base of the mountain. Each of the routes has ten rest station…the most popular route has ninety-nine switchbacks.” (Brockman, 355). The six people on the right hand side of the picture are the people who are climbing the mountain.

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Third, these later develop to express the mixture of tradition. (Earhar).
The key point of all the legend about Mount Fuji is Asama Shrine (浅間神社).”In Kakugyo’s time, the two chief religious institutions devoted to Mt. Fuji were the Fuji Sengen (or Asama) Shrine 富士浅間神社.”(Tyler,252). Asama Shrine still has 1300 branches nowadays. Therefore Asama shrine still have large influence in Japan as we can see from the number. During Edo period, there are many religions base on Mount Fuji. These religions are the new religions that mix Shintoism and Buddhism. During this period, Assma Shrine also becomes a “bodhisattva” in Assma. Mount Fuji is very important in religions believes at that time. (Earhart)

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“Fuji ascetic Kakugyo 角行 (書行藤佛)(1541- 1646), the founder of the Edo- period (1600-1868) cult of Mt. Fuji.” (Tyler, 252). During fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, society and religion are mix together because the warring state. “ The central message and key leader of Fuji religiosity came not from Murayama and its professional Shugendo priests but from the ranks of the common people – a wandering practitioner named Kakugyo.” (Earhart). Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is the right hand side figure of the two mountain ascetics featured on the map. The name Kakugyo Tobustu Ku is meaningful. Kaku means “square”, Gyo means “practice” , To can be read as “fuji”, Butsu is the name of the Buddham and Ku means honor. Therefore, the name Kakugyo Tobutsu Ku means square, fuji, practice buddham and honor.

Kakugyo Tobustu Ku has two famous disciples. One is Jikigyo Miroku 食行身禄 (1671-1733)and Murakami Kosei 村上光清 (1682-1759. These two people are reat sixth-generation successors that turned the cult in to a mass movement. (Tyler, 253). Jikigyo Miroku is the figure above that on the left side. Miroku means maitreya 弥勒 in Buddhism which is the Buddha who is to come. Jikigyo Miroku get the name Miroku 身禄 from Fuji deity directly (Tyler,261). Jikigyo Miroku’s death launched the Fuji cult as a mass movement. Jikigyo fasted to death on the height of Mt.Fuji. Jikigyo Miroku uses his death to feed the world. (Tyler, 261)

During that time, Japan has many religion bases on the nature worship. The religion base on the nature worship still has influence till now. All these worship and religions is the people want to have some supernatural that can help their life, make their dream come true by using an fantasy way. That is the original Japanese religions. It related to Earhart has mention: “ At Fuji, as is true within all of Japanese religion, power- even destructive force – may be venerated as well as feared, worshipped at the same time as it is pacified. “ (Asasm shirne)

In conclusion, the religion base on Mount Fuji is a mixture of Shintoism, Buddhism, Taoism and some folk belief. All these elements reflect that the relationship between Mount Fuji and Japanese.

Reference:
1.Whalen, Ken. Fuji,Mount. Sage knowledge, 2017,
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.4135/9781412953924.n437. Access Mar 26 2017.
2.Earhart,Byron. Mount Fuji: Icon of Japan. The University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
3.Brockman,Nobert C. Encyclopedia of sacred places. 2011.
4. Tyler Royall, The Book of the Great Practice: The Life of the Mt. Fuji Ascetic Kakugyō Tōbutsu Kū. Nanzan University, 1993.

The Bifurcation of Two Countries’ fates ——A Map in Isolation Era of Japan & China

 

Introduction

Both of Japan and China had national isolations,and westernization reformations during 19th century. Although both of them were forced to open their gates and sign numerous unjust treaties by western countries, only Japan turned to a powerful country through their reformation after, and China was nibbled by great powers. At pre-modern era, the two countries had totally different altitudes toward western civilization, which lead to their different national fates.

The map that I picked is just a witness of such an ironical time about East Asia. Times have passed and circumstances have changed, but the map is still lying on museum’s display table and telling us this history silently. Through my research, I want to explore how Japan and China’s altitudes toward pre-modern western civilization’s impact effected the two countries’ modernizations, and why only Japan succeed.

 

The Map’s History

This is the map I picked in UBC’s museum called地球萬國山海輿地全圖説(Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusets).

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Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu (1790), the map copy of坤輿万国全図

 

It was created by Nagakubo, Sekisui (1717-1801) in 1790 (UBC, 2015). It was based on Ricci, Matteo (1552-1610)’s 坤輿万国全図, the main character of this paper.

坤輿万国全図 was the most advanced world map in 17th century. It was imported to Japan from China in early isolation era, colored and marked by some katakana annotations.

1200px-Kunyu_Wanguo_Quantu_(坤輿萬國全圖)Unattributed (1604?), two page colored Japanese copy of the 1602 map

 

The original Chinese version was created by the Christian missionary, Matteo Ricci, in 1602 with the assistance from 李之藻 (1565-1630), the minister and scientist in the Ministry of Works in feudal China (Ming Dynasty) (日本の世界地図(1)発見の時代~坤輿万国全図 写図, 2011). It was a very large map with the size of 1.8x4M, and carved on six large blocks of wood.

Kunyu Wanguo Quantu, printed by Matteo Ricci, Zhong Wentao and Li Zhizao, upon request of Wanli Emperor in Beijing, 1602

 

This map was surprisingly accurate, and detailed, so that some people even doublet its facticity (锐尺, 2014). This is understandable if we consider the measuring/mapping technique in early 17th century. At that time, Australia and Antarctica were still not found yet, and Magellan’s trip around the world just passed 80 years. As a matter of course, people will be surprised that a missionary could utilize old time’s mapping technique to create such a modern-like map which we made by using satellites. Not only about continents and 2 polar, it explains the cause of eclipses and the rotating system of earth and moon as well.

 

Matteo Ricci was one of the pioneers of Catholic missionary in China and the first Western scholar who read Chinese literature and studied Chinese ancient books. Except doing missionary works, he also tried to keep in touch with officers and society people, and spread the Western astronomy, mathematics, geography and other scientific knowledge (锐尺, 2014). His writings not only made important contributions to the exchanges between China and the West, but also had a significant impact on the understanding of Western civilization on the Japanese and Korean, such as this geographical map. He combined Chinese and western measuring and marine technology to contribute this most advanced world map based on former maps.

 

Different Encounter in China And Japan

Unfortunately,Chinese rulers didn’t take this significant map seriously. This map was published in late Ming dynasty. But Ming was replaced by Qing in 1636. In Qing dynasty, emperor and government ministers lost their passion on western culture and modern technologies. They couldn’t distinguish Spain and Portugal, and even made mistake to recognize France. But those were ready-made knowledge on this map, from former dynasty. In Qing Dynasty, people’s deficit about nature science completely unmasked in many ways.

In Kangxi period, the minister Guangxian Yang, criticized ‘Round earth theory’ that: “有识者以理推之,不觉喷饭满案矣。夫人顶天立地,未闻有横立倒立之人也。……此可见大地之非圆也” (锐尺, 2014). It means that if earth is a round, then the person stands above the round and anther person stands below the round will be standing opposite, so one of them must be hanging upside down, which is impossible. It can be seen that Chinese people were not able to understand gravity, no speaking of solar system which denied Chinese believe: our world is the central of the universe. Thus, this map was a treason for Qing government. 地球, the most common Chinese character in todays’ world were definitely a traitorous word in 17th century’s China. The word, 地球 was firstly introduced by Ricci on this map in history (锐尺, 2014). It overturned Chinese people’s traditional concept of the world: round universe and square earth.

It was also a bad word for Qing’s empire. For example, Asia was marked as 亚细亚. In Qing’s famous scholar Pingbu Qing’s book,he interpreted it as an insult. Because the word, 亚 in Chinese means secondary, lowliness, and loser. In former dynasty, Ming, the government minister Guangqi Xu cooperated with Matteo Ricci to translate one of the modern science’s footstones: ‘Elements of Geometry’ (98绿茶, 2008). But in Qing dynasty, what Ricci’s works got, were only ignorance and ridicule. The sorry decline of Chinese people’s scientific spirt made their country far behind the world later, and their governing class had inevitable responsibility.

In contrast, this map was a reference of geographic knowledge in Japan. It became the most important template of map creation. Just after one year of map坤輿万国全図’s first publish, it was imported to Japan in 1603~1606. This map with Chinese characters was much more popular than other EU-made maps in Japan, and it was considered as the only reliable world map, and became the most important information source for later works, especially during close country period (坤輿万国全図).

 

The Difference of China and Japan’s Revolution

China is the Heaven country, which has vast territory and abundant resources, such a though rooted in Qing rulers’ heads. They didn’t care westerners came to China for culture exchange or business or what. Pre-modern western civilization couldn’t catch Qing emperors’ eyes, except weapon  s. In late Qing dynasty, similar to Japan, China was facing inside national conflicts and the threat of outside colonialism, in order to maintain the Qing’s dominant position, some ministers lead China’s modernization movement as well.  But the difference was, Japan’s Meji restoration was started from lower worriers. The unfair promotion system, the busted economy, and countless never-seen western technology made them have no choice to down the Bakufu. What they need is a powerful modern country, a new world, but not a decayed old government.

During isolation period, Tokugawa government opened Nagasaki bay, allowed Dutch and Chinese had trades there. The government ordered coming businessmen need to write reports about overseas’ information. Such as風説書 fusetsugaki  (于忠元, 2013) . During 1840-1844 the風説書 about China even reached 19 books, through those reports Japanese governing class realized the unprecedentedly national crisis that eastern people were facing (于忠元, 2013).  Edo people were curious about how world was changing. But Qing government thought China was still the strongest, most advanced country in the world.

In the aspect of psychology, Chinese and Japanese were different as well. For a long term, China was the absolute leader in Asia as a culture exporter. Chinese emperors called surrendering countries as the lands of the barbarians. During the 30 years of Chinese westernization, Chinese publisher’s books about western learning only were sold about 13000 books. But in Japan, only books about western learning which written by Fukuzawa Yukichi were sold over 250,000 books (黎询洲, 2013). Just because Japan did not have the superiority complex towards foreign countries, so Japanese people could accept western learnings without hesitation.

 

Conclusion

In Matteo Ricci’s notes, he commented that arrogance and being conservative brought China unfortunate fate; based on the greatness, political institution, and the fame of scholarism, they regarded other nations as savages, but such an innocence would make them arrogant. Obviously, only looking far ahead and following the trend of times could make a country progress. That is so called Chinese traditional virtue: modesty. As a powerhouse, he must keep awake from his power; once he lost in it, the day of his death is not far. If we enlarge the scale of time, there is no permanent advanced countries, but only permanent developing countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

 

98绿茶. (2008/7). 《坤舆万国全图》见证了清朝时期可悲的倒退. Access time: 2017/4/1,铁血网: http://bbs.tiexue.net/post2_2946086_1.html
UBC. (2015). Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu. Access time: 2017/4/5, Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/tokugawa/items/1.0213204#p0z-5r0f:%E4%B8%87%E5%9B%BD
坤輿万国全図. Access time: 2017/4/4, 世界史の窓: http://www.y-history.net/appendix/wh0801-103.html
黎询洲. (2013). 中日“闭关锁国”时期的文化心理之比较. Theoretic Observation (79), Page 40.
日本の世界地図(1)発見の時代~坤輿万国全図 写図. (2011年9月27日). Access time: 2017/4/2, 泰西古典絵画紀行:
http://blog.goo.ne.jp/dbaroque/e/2aac5de801e476215d496d83e3909433
锐尺. (2014/10). 《坤舆万国全图》:一张明代的世界地图. Access time: 2017年4月6日,National Geographic: http://www.nationalgeographic.com.cn/news/2190.html
于忠元. (2013). 中日“闭关锁国”时代对西方态度之比较. Forward Position (328), Page 150.

 

 

Yokohama: The City of Foreign Trade

Yokohama (横浜市 Yokohama-shi), the capital of Kanagawa prefecture, Japan is the country’s second largest city and running one of its leading seaports. Yokohama is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area, and is one of the major international trading ports of Japan today.

 Yokohama: A Small Fishing Village

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In the late Edo period, Yokohama played a major role in Japan’s foreign trade, but before becoming a leading port, Yokohama was once a small fishing village. Until Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his fleet of U.S. naval warships visited Yokohama near the end of the Edo period in 1854, in which, quickly turned the city into the base for foreign trade in Japan. In 1859, Yokohama became a port for foreign trade and settlement that enjoyed extraterritorial and powerful rights. Known especially for its exports of raw silk and tea, Yokohama also handled canned fish and other local products since this city now was once a fishing village.1 “Foreign trade led to the rapid growth of Yokohama, which served during the last half of the 19th century as Tokyo’s outer port.”2

The Arrival of Foreigners

Almost 160 years ago the Edo government decided to open more of Japan to Westerners such as The United States, UK, Russia, Netherlands and France. Until then Japan has been isolated since they only allowed certain type of people to trade in Nagasaki such as the Dutch and Chinese. Yokohama was a small fishing village, and the history of Yokohama as a metropolis began with the opening of the port in 1859. The seaport was the result of a treaty between Japan and the United States, together with a number of other European countries.3 There was a need for a new port, but between Japan and the US, it was almost impossible to reach agreement as to where it was to be located.4 The USA and other allies wanted to settle in Kanagawa (an area directly south of Edo), but the Shogunate (also known as the office of chief military commanders) decided otherwise. Therefore, they chose Yokohama to become the new port. However the real motive behind this decision was the Shogunate’s fear of how the foreigners’ disruption might arise in Japan, since there were foreigners already living in the Kanagawa’s area.5 “Another reason for opening the port in Yokohama was its topography, which has consisted of hills and the bay of Tokyo. This topography had the same advantages in isolating the foreign community as that of Nagasaki.”6 The new port was constructed at a steady pace, and as the villagers of Yokohama were moved to another area, foreign “custom houses, two harbours, and a checkpoint for trading goods were constructed.”7

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So the big question here is why did Commodore Matthew C. Perry, or to be more broad; Europeans, go to Yokohama and turned the city into a trade harbor? One of the most common reasons was to bring back items, which worth a lot in the Western countries which meant money and wealth. Asia was still a newly market country that could bring wealth to the Western countries, and in the Edo period, Edo (currently known as Tokyo) was the biggest city in the world, and in order to reach and trade with Edo, Yokohama was the place to do that since the city had the biggest port, closest to Edo. Additionally, the availability to trade with Yokohama carried a great amount of Southeastern products. For Japanese, traveling to the Southeastern part of Asia was not difficult, but for the Europeans, such as the Dutch had a difficult time since the direction to go to Southeast Asia was difficult for them, the easiest way to trade for Southeastern products was through, Japan.8

When Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived to Yokohama, supposedly the message he brought to Japan’s leaders also looked forward for a mutually beneficial trade relations. Commodore_Matthew_Calbraith_PerryOn the surface, Perry’s demands seemed relatively modest,9 but truthfully, the trade treaty was unfair and made the European unwelcome for this business. However, since the government of Japan was frightened by the power of the US military, hence the Japanese government gave in to almost all of Perry’s demands to this negotiating treaty. Even though the Japanese government grant these foreigners to settle in and allowed their trading businesses, the Japanese government still had a bit of control of this port because “first, the treaty was a negotiated, not a treaty of defeat, and thus had no coercive elements; second, the shogunate had planned the construction of the foreign settlement and thus had a strong say in its running; third, the shogunate even in the later negotiations never relented about Yokohama; and fourth, the foreigners did not have the monetary recourses to construct a settlement by themselves.”10 Therefore, the Japanese still had power to this port.

“For Americans, Perry’s expedition to Japan was but one momentous step in a seemingly inexorable westward expansion that ultimately spilled across the Pacific to embrace the exotic East. But for the Japanese, on the other hand, the intrusion of Perry’s warships was traumatic, confounding, fascinating, and ultimately devastating.11
As the foreign settlement and trade began in Yokohama, the Americans enter into the Japanese trading industry and other foreigners quickly followed after. Due to the rush of foreigners, foreign influences and experiences flooded Japan heavily mixing the Japanese and Western culture.12 One example that the Europeans brought over on their 06_030a_Dejimatrading ships would be Christian missionaries. Widely known to the Japanese as the “southern barbarians” since they arrived from the south and welcomed themselves to a place that a religion has already been established a long time ago, these foreigners intruding into Japan established a particularly strong presence in and around port cities, thus the unwelcome mix of foreign influences.13

The Trading Ports: Yokohama vs. Nagazaki

Compared to other lesser well known Japanese ports, foreign merchants preferred Yokohama because the city had excellent deep water ports, therefore making the city the largest trading port in Japan because it was close to the capital, Edo, and because it was blessed with warm and clement weather.

“Since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tokugawa shogunate pursued a policy of isolating the country from outside influences. Foreign trade was maintained only with the Dutch and the Chinese and was conducted exclusively at Nagasaki under a strict government monopoly.”14 But since the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry made the opening of Yokohama port easier for Westerns trade closer to Edo. Nagasaki contrary was at the very end of Japan, which made it difficult to communicate with the shogunate in Edo.

Past vs. Present

As the number of Western foreign ships docking at The Yokohama port, Britain ships carried more than 50 percent of the trade, although in terms of value, the Japanese export trade exceeded the import trade. The main Japanese export item was silk, and the second item was tea. Silk and tea combined comprised 90 per cent of the export trade.15

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(Port of Yokohama in the Past)

yokohama-bay-areamain

(Present day Port of Yokohama)

Presently, Yokohama Port no longer exports only silk and tea, but is composed of ten major piers. Some of the piers such as the Honmoku Pier, is the port’s core facility, Osanbashi Pier handles passenger traffic, such as cruises, and has customs, immigration and quarantine facilities for international travel, Detamachi Pier receives fresh fruits and vegetables, and seven berths of Mizuho Pier are used by the United States Forces Japan, and additional piers handle timber and serve other functions.16 Over the evolving years of the Yokohama port, the port has expanded worldwide trading from importing and exporting.

 

Work Cited

[1] “Yokohama,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., last modified March 26, 2017, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yokohama.

[2] “Yokohama,” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., last modified March 26, 2017, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/yokohama.

[3] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[4] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[5] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[6] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[7] Arie Graafland, The Socius of Architecture: Amsterdam, Tokyo, New York (Netherlands: Rotterdam, 2000), 163.

[8] “100 Year Japan – The Netherlands,” Paulus Swaen, last modified June 14, 2010, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.swaen.com/japanNED.php

[9] “Matthew C. Perry.” Wikipedia. Last modified March 21, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_C._Perry.

[10] Ian Nish and Yoichi Kibata, The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600-1930. (New York: Springer, 2000), 45

[11] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[12] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[13] “Black Ships & Samurai: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (1853-1854).” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last modified July 2003. Accessed Match 22, 2017. https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/black_ships_and_samurai/bss_essay01. html.

[14] “Convention of Kanagawa.” Wikipedia. Last modified February 08, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_of_Kanagawa.

[15] Ian Nish and Yoichi Kibata, The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600-1930. (New York: Springer, 2000), 45

[16] “Port of Yokohama,” Wikipedia, last modified November 15, 2016, accessed March 22, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Yokohama.

 

Dai Nihon Saiken Dōchū Zukan: A Long, Complicated Name for a Long, Complicated Map

cdm.tokugawa.1-0216353.0000full               Dai Nihon Saiken Dōchū Zukan was made by Tomonari, Shōkyoku in 1850. It is a large map (34cm by 141.5cm) detailing information about Honshū, Kyūshū, and Shikoku.

In order to organize the massive amount of information that it conveys, icons are used to indicate the following:

Cities – Red circles (the larger the city, the smaller the circle)Kyotoarea

Yellow squares – Castles

Hexagons – Province name

White cartouches – Places where one can stay

Red rectangles – Pilgrimage sites (numbered)

Red lines – Major highways

Dotted lines – Sea routes

Black lines with black triangle – Provincial borders

The key to these icons can be found in the lower right corner of the map.

On the far left of the map there is a detailed table which records distances between sites and various highway tolls. The tolls are separated into either two or three categories. Two of these categories seem to be the toll for someone on foot and the toll for one on horseback. In some places there is a third category listed, but it has thus far proven to be illegible.

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An interesting part of this map is that in order to reconcile the actual shape of Japan with the straightened version depicted here (I would theorize that this was done in order to conserve space), the map maker has included three compasses on the map. The first can be found north of the island of Kyūshū. At this point on the map, the orientation is still relatively accurate, and so the compass indicates North to be towards the top of the page. As one moves towards the right along the map, they find another compass on the Pacific side of Honshū. To account for the now skewed orientation in that area, the compass has been rotated to give a more accurate indication of which way is north. The third compass can be found on the other side of Honshū, in the Sea of Japan. The rotation of the compass here is more extreme than in the second compass, as the perspective here is quite inaccurate.

Compass1compass2compass3

Where the intended use of this map is concerned, I am inclined to state that it was, in fact, made to be used by travelers on the road as opposed to a more decorative purpose. My reasoning is supported by three characteristics of the map. First, the rotation of the three compasses seem to indicate an effort at maintaining topographical accuracy. This would naturally be important to someone attempting to travel using the map’s information. Second, the large amounts of practical information would be unnecessary for a decorative map. This, however, could still be useful if the map was made to be displayed instead of carried. Except that my third reason is the small fact that the title section of the map is only half the length of the whole work. I do not feel that it is too large a jump to say that this would indicate that the map was made to be folded into the size of that small title section, and thus made into something which a traveler could easily carry with them on the road.

 

References:

“Dai Nihon saiken dōchū zukan.” University of British Columbia – Rare Books and Special Collections: Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era. April 9th, 2017. https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/tokugawa/items/1.0216353#share

 

Ryūsenzu: Maps Composed by an Author of Popular Literature

Introduction

Ryūsenzu 流宣図 is an epoch-making style of map from the Tokugawa period (1603-1868). The name “Ryūsenzu” is derived from Ishikawa Ryūsen (or Tomonobu), an ukiyo-e artist and a literary author. As of April 2017, eight versions of the Ryūsen-style Japanese map can be seen in the “Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era” section of the University of British Columbia Library Open Collections (see Table 1).

Table.1 Japanese Maps by Ishikawa Ryūsen in UBC Collections

Figure. 1 Honchō zukan kōmoku 本朝圖鑑綱目. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1686

 

Figure. 2 Honchō zukan kōmoku 本朝圖鑑綱目. Kyoto: Hayashi Yoshinaga, 1689

 

Figure. 3 Nihon kaizan chōrikuzu 日本海山潮陸図. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1691

Figure. 4 Nihon zukan kōmoku 日本圖鑑綱目. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1697

 

Figure. 5 Nihon sankai zudō taizen 日本山海圖道大全. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1697

Figure. 6 Dai Nihon shōtō zukan 大日本正統圖鑑. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1702

 

Figure. 7 Nihon sankai zudō taizen 日本山海圖道大全. Edo: Sagamiya Tahē, 1703

 

Figure. 8 Dai Nihonkoku ōezu 大日本國大繪圖. Edo: Yamaguchiya Gonbē, 1717

The above maps from a collection that effectively illustrates some essential characteristics of Ryūsenzu.

Until the 1980s, studies of old maps were conducted by collectors or map historians. Today’s study of historical maps is a multidisciplinary field in which researchers in art history, literature, philosophy, geography, political science, economy, and cultural studies work on independent or collaborative projects. [1] Regarding the study of Ryūsenzu, the historical geographer Miyoshi Tadayoshi examined Ryūsen-sytle Japanese in political and cultural aspects. However, there was no argument about authorship or content by researchers in the field of literature, although Ryūsen was an energetic author of popular works in the eighteenth-century Edo period.

This short description sheds light on Ryūsenzu as a literary author’s map in the context of publishing and print culture. I hope the description helps you to understand these best-seller maps as cultural commodities and illustrates Ryūsen’s cross-disciplinary activities and imagination.

Who was Ishikawa Ryūsen?

Ishikawa Ryūsen 石川流宣 (born: late seventeenth century?) was a cross-genre creator. As an author, he wrote a variety of popular works such as ukiyo-zōshi 浮世草子 (kana booklets), hanashi-bon 噺本; humorous books), enpon 艶本 (erotica), and guidebooks. His major works are Kōshoku Edo murasaki 好色江戸紫 (Amorous Edo-style Purple), Shojiki banashi ōkagami 正直咄大鑑 (Anthology of Really Funny Stories), and Yamato kōsakushō 大和耕作繪抄 (Illustrated annotation of Japanese Farming). He also co-authored a series of erotica prints with Furuyama Moroshige 古山師重). He was highly regarded as a map composer even though his accomplishments covered broad areas. In other words, his multiple talents included creating a unique style of maps for popular audiences.

 

What is Ryūsenzu?

“Ryūsenze” mean Ryūsen-style Japanese maps. Although Ryūsen made a variety of maps, including world maps and maps of the city of Edo, both scholars and collectors have tended to focus on Ryūsen’s maps of Japan. Unlike his other maps, his maps of Japan were reprinted, revised, and remodeled over and over for almost a hundred years. For example, Nihon kaizan chōrikuzu 日本海山潮陸図, 1691; see Figure 3) was the most successful Ryūsenzu and was reprinted at least twenty-eight times.[2]

Figure. 9 Wavy Coastline

Two things made Ryūsen’s maps of Japan popular: visual appeal and informative contents. As an ukiyoe painter, Ryūsen stressed aesthetic values rather than the topographic accuracy of his maps of Japan when he created his style. The maps consist mainly of three islands—Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshu—shaped by unique wavy coastlines. Ryūsen embedded these islands in a horizontally oblong, rectangular frame and used various techniques for color coding to differentiate domains, sea, mountains, and other symbols in his maps. Interestingly, his early productions were mostly in the form of folded screens byōbu or 屏風) instead of sheets of paper. [3] He produced maps of Japan as artworks rather than as practical publications.

Figure. 10 Byōbu

Ryūsen also developed an infographic design style to provide administrative information on the locations of domains, the names of feudal lords, and their annual incomes, as well as on Japan’s principal cities, roads, stations, shipping routes, etc., with his sophisticated printing skills (Figures 1, 2, 4, and 6). One reason Ryūsenzu maps were often revised was that such administrative information frequently had to be updated.

A comparison of the eight maps from the UBC Library Open Collections suggests that Ryūsen-style Japanese maps transformed gradually from artistic maps into practical travel-guide maps. The amount of travel-guide content increased in later Ryūsenzu maps. Famous temples, shrines, and mountains, etc. were included in the maps, along with tide charts, etc. (Figures 3, 5, 7 and 8).

Figure. 11 Tide Chart

For example, Dai Nihonkoku ōezu 大日本國大繪圖 (Figure 8) has more practical, travel-oriented information than the seven other maps, although this came at the cost of the other maps’ decorative and colorful features. Reducing color coding could have helped to save on production costs. Dai Nihonkoku ōezu was probably sold as a reasonably priced map even though it had more information than the other maps. Ryūsen’s experience as a writer of travel guidebooks allowed him to invent highly informative travel-guide maps. These administrative and travel-guide maps were published in parallel. To understand the transformation of Ryūsenzu’s contents, his maps should be compared to one another. Comparing the eight maps will be a good way for me to start this study.

The following table organizes the bibliographical lineage of the eight maps.[4]

Table 2. The Bibliographical Lineage of the Eight Maps

 

The End of the Ryūsenzu Boom

Ryūsen played an important role in disseminating a certain image of Japan among commoners until another epoch-making map, Sekizuizu 赤水図, appeared in the late eighteenth century. Sekisuizu was a map style that was developed by the geographer Nagakubo Sekisui 長久保赤水; 1717-1801). Sekisui wanted to accurately represent the topography of the Japanese archipelago in maps. He referenced multiple geographic and historical sources to produce Kaisei Nihon Yochi rotei zenzu 改正日本輿地路程全図, 1779). Although the map was not composed using land survey data, it contains accurate topographic information. As a result, Sekisuizu took from Ryūsenzu the position of the best-selling map among commoner readers and was reprinted over and over by the end of the Tokugawa period.[5]

The end of the Ryūsenzu boom suggests a transformation of consumer behavior. Commoners’ interest was shifting, in the late Tokugawa period, from narrative space to geopolitical and scientific space. Map consumers increasingly sought maps composed by geography experts instead of maps created by cross-genre authors.

Ryūsen’s cross-genre accomplishments were not unique during the Tokugawa period. Ihara Saikaku 井原西鶴, 1642-1693), the leading author of ukiyo-zōshi, contributed illustrations to his works. Many haiku poets also contributed their illustrations. As for maps, consumers accepted those that were composed by cross-genre illustrators during Ryūsen’s epoch. Studying Ryūsenzu gives us an opportunity to explore the emergence of professional writers who focused on textual creativity.

Notes

[1] Kuroda Hideo 黒田日出男, Mary Elizabeth Berry and Sugimoto Fumiko 杉本史子, “Hajime ni はじめに,” in Chizu to ezu no seiji bunkashi 地図と絵図の政治文化史 (Mapping and Politics in Premodern Japan), Kuroda Hideo, Mary Elizabeth Berry, and Sugimoto Fumiko, eds. (Tokyo: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai, 2001), i.

[2] Miyoshi Tadayoshi 三好唯義 “Ishikawa Ryūsen-saku Nihonzu: Edo jidai ni okeru besuto serā Nihonzu 石川流宣作日本図:江戸時代におけるベストセラー日本図,” in Chizu to bunka 地図と文化, Hisatake Tetsuya 久武哲也, and Hasegawa Kōji長谷川孝治, eds., (Kyoto: Chijin Shobō, 1989), 39.

[3] Kokusai Chizu Gakkai 国際地理学会, Kokusai Chizu Gakkai 国際地理学会, and Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan 国立国会図書館, eds., “General Maps of Japan: 6. Nihok kaisan chōrikuzu,” in Nihon no chizuten: kansen chizu no hattatsu 日本の地図展: 官撰地図の発達 (Cartography in Japan: Official Maps Past and Present), exhibition catalogue, 25 August-5 September 1980, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan, Tokyo), 58, 77.

[4] Akioka Takejirō and Miyoshi Tadayoshi categorize Ryūsenzu into three types. Miyoshi Tadayoshi 三好唯義, “Iwayuru Ryūsen Nihonzu ni tsuite いわゆる流宣日本図について,” Chizu地図27:6 (1989): 3, accessed on March 26, 2017, doi: 10.11212/jjca1963.27.3_1

[5] Miyoshi, “Ishikawa Ryūsen-saku Nihonzu: Edo jidai ni okeru besuto serā Nihonzu,” 39.

Works Cited

Ishikawa Ryūsen 石川流宣. [1687?]. Kōshoku Edo murasaki 好色江戸紫. Tokyo: Waseda University Library Kotenseki Sogo Database. http://www.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kotenseki/html/he13/he13_04385/index.html

———. [1688?]. Shojiki banashi ōkagami 正直咄大鑑. Tokyo: Waseda University Library Kotenseki Sogo Database. http://www.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kotenseki/html/he13/he13_04385/index.html

———.  Yamato kōsakushō 大和耕作繪抄. Facsimile. [Not before 1868]. Tokyo: National Institute of Japanese Literature Kindai shoshi kindai gazo dētabēsu 近代書誌・近代画像データベース. http://dbrec.nijl.ac.jp/BADB_KGMS-00120

Kokusai Chizu Gakkai 国際地理学会, Kokusai Chizu Gakkai 国際地理学会, and Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan 国立国会図書館, eds. “General Maps of Japan: 6. Nihok kaisan chōrikuzu.” In Nihon no chizuten: kansen chizu no hattatsu 日本の地図展: 官撰地図の発達 (Cartography in Japan: Official Maps Past and Present). Exhibition catalogue, 25 August-5 September 1980. Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan, Tokyo. 58, 77.

Kuroda Hideo 黒田日出男, Mary Elizabeth Berry, and Sugimoto Fumiko 杉本史子. “Hajime ni はじめに.” Edited by Kuroda Hideo, Mary Elizabeth Berry and Sugimoto Fumiko. In Chizu to ezu no seiji bunkashi 地図と絵図の政治文化史 (Mapping and Politics in Premodern Japan). Tokyo: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai, 2001. i-v.

Miyoshi Tadayoshi 三好唯義 “Ishikawa Ryūsen-saku Nihonzu: Edo jidai ni okeru besuto serā Nihonzu 石川流宣作日本図:江戸時代におけるベストセラー日本図.” In Chizu to bunka 地図と文化., Hisatake Tetsuya 久武哲也 and Hasegawa Kōji長谷川孝治, eds. Kyoto: Chijin Shobō, 1989. 38-39.

———. “Iwayuru Ryūsen Nihonzu ni tsuite いわゆる流宣日本図について.” Chizu 地図27:6 (1989): 3. Accessed on March 26, 2017. Doi: 10.11212/jjca1963.27.3_1

Shogakukan 小学館. “Byōbu no renketsuhō 屏風の連結法.” In Nihon hyakka zensho 日本大百科全書. Accessed on March 26, 2017. http://japanknowledge.com/lib/display/?lid=1001081306024011181

Maps of Mount Fuji

Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan. It is an active volcano and its height is an altitude of 3,776 meters. In June of 2013, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage property, under the name of ‘sacred place and source of artistic inspiration.’ As ‘the great object of universal devotion’ and ‘a source of artistic inspiration,’ Mount Fuji has been effecting to Japanese people’s lives, and their nature and culture. Therefore, it is drawn and created to maps by people. Fujisan no zu (富士山之圖) and Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu (大日本富士山絶頂之圖) are the example of them.

fujisan no zu.jpg

Fujisan no zu (富士山之圖) – It means a ‘Map of Mount Fuji.’ This map was created by Sawaguchi Seio in 1848, which was Edo (or Tokugawa) period. It is a flat map and its dimensions are 91.4X96.5cm. However, it is a three-dimensional map at the same time, because the middle part of the map could be folded like a cone shape. It looks like real Mount Fuji when it is folded. Moreover, middle part of the left side of the map could be flipped. When it is flipped, there is another monochrome image. Overall, the map is showing an aerial view of Mount Fuji, and many religious features, such as pilgrims, figures of Buddha and monks, are indicated on the map.

Dainihon Fujisan zetchô no zu .jpg

Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu (大日本富士山絶頂之圖) – It means a ‘Map of the summit of Mount Fuji.’ This map was created by Utagawa Sadahide in 1857, which was also Edo (or Tokugawa) period. It is a flat map and its dimensions are 36.0X76.0cm. It becomes a piece of completed map when three different parts are connected. Overall, the map is showing a panoramic view of crater of Mount Fuji. There are many religious features as well, such as torii (とりい), pilgrims and fortress with figures of Buddha.

As it could be seen above, there are many similarities between the two maps. In this writing, religious background of Mount Fuji would be discussed. At the same time, similarities of the two maps, such as spot signals (paths to the summit), pilgrims and no appearance of woman, would be analyzed based on the religious background.

Religious background

Mount Fuji has been considered as a sacred presence to Japanese. As the great object of universal devotion, it influenced Japanese’s outlook on nature. Japanese looked up the mountain and worshiped when it had volcanic activity. When the activity finished, the faith toward mountain and imported foreign Buddhism were combined, and the mountain became a place of asceticism. Especially people aimed to go up to the top and walk through the path with worshipping their gods. After few years, normal people who were called as believers climbed the mountain to follow the ascetics. In the middle of Edo period, after 17th century, Fujiko was appeared and spread. Fujiko was kind a lesson that taught a doctrine of Fuji religion. Many of Fujiko believers worshipped with walking the foot of the mountain and Oshi houses were reorganized to support believers who climbed the mountain. Oshi houses offered a place to sleep and some foods.

A start of Mount Fuji religion – A long time ago, people formed a community or performed religious ceremony at the foot of the mountain. Around 8-9th century, people thought the repeating volcanic activities were anger of a god of fire ‘Asamano Okami(浅間大神).’ To clam her down, people started to worship her from a distance. They looked top of the mountain and prayed, and it became a custom. Because of the custom, a place was created in order to worship from afar, like Yamamiya sengen shrine. After 800 years, Mount Fuji kept repeating great volcanic activities. To calm it down, some shrines were built again to pay people’s respects to the souls of Asamano Okami.

Fuji religion became popular – Around 12th century, Mount Fuji’s volcanic activities were calm down. Men of religion who were called as ascetics climbed the mountain to get some power from gods because they believed Mount Fuji was a land of asceticism. On the top of the mountain, a base of religion was built along the wall of craters. Around the craters, there were eight peaks and people thought they were eight floral leaves of lotus. People went on a pilgrimage to the eight peaks and it was called ‘Ohachimeguri.’ Matsudai Shonin, who was famous for climbing the mountain the most, built a temple, which was named ‘Dainichiji,’ on the top of the mountain. Moreover, he built ‘Murayama sengen’ shrine and it was a base for practice asceticism among men of religion. After 14th century, normal people could be pilgrims and climbed the mountain to follow the ascetics. From the entrance of the mountain, trails were reorganized and communities were formed for the climbers.

Prosperity of Fuji religion – In 17th century, Fujiko was created that came from ‘Hasegawa Gaku’ religion. Fujiko was a group of people who were full with faiths. They worshipped Mount Fuji as making a pilgrimage to scared places in a foot of the mountain such as Saiko, Shojiko and Oshino Hatkai. There were known as Gaku religion’s asceticism places. In 18th century, Fujiko gained explosive popularity among normal people. Therefore, the number of climbers increased and Oshi houses were developed. As living at the Oshi houses, monks led and took care the believers. In the middle of 19th century, path of pilgrimage in Mount Fuji was not the only one. It should not have to walk through by turns. It was made with many routes, which could be walk with various purposes of pilgrimage.

Similarities between the two maps

There are many religious features on the two maps. For example, on Fujisan no zu, there are many pilgrims, two monks and figures of Buddha. There are rooms and features of Buddha are located in the rooms. People go into the room and pray. Also, there are many writings on the map and one of them, the Waka poem that is in the middle of the map includes religious meaning. It says, “If you climb Mount Fuji, there is a scared meaning.” In addition, on Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu, there are pilgrims who make a pilgrimage around the crater. Moreover,similar to Fujisan no zu, there are rooms and features of Buddha. People are praying to features of Buddha in fortresses. Furthermore, there are many toriis which look like a gate. They are usually located in front of shrine as a symbol of fortune. People believe that abusive things are changed to sacred through out the gate. They could be located in front of nature, then it means they worship the nature itself.

Screen Shot 2017-04-10 at 11.46.09 AM.png
Spot signals on Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetcho no zu
Screen Shot 2017-04-10 at 11.54.49 AM.png
Spot signals on Fujisan no zu

Spot signals (paths to the summit) – On the both maps, there are yellow or red spot signals and path to the summit. The spot signals indicate spots’ name or sacred places. Moreover, there are many paths to the summit at Mount Fuji, however, there are only important or popular paths are indicated on the maps.

mig.jpeg
Konohana no Sakuya Hime

Konohana no Sakuya hime and No admittance to woman – Mountain Fuji’s also had a mountain spirit and it was a woman. Her name was ‘Konohana no Sakuya hime (コノハナノサクヤビメ)’ and she was a god of blooming flowers. As a god of mountain Fuji, she was enshrined at Shingen shrine. However, one ironic thing is, women could not climb the mountain and they were banned even though the mountain spirit was woman. On the two maps, woman could not be found and all people on the maps are men.

 

Works cited

Hashimoto, Sadahide, 1807-1873, and Seiō Sawaguchi. Fujisan no Zu, Vancouver (B.C.) : University of British Columbia. Library, 1848.

Utagawa, Sadahide, 1807-1873. Dai Nihon Fujisan Zetchō no Zu, Vancouver (B.C.) : University of British Columbia. Library, 1857.

Bernstein, Andrew. “Whose Fuji? Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol.” Monumenta Nipponica, vol. 63, no. 1, 2008, pp. 51-99.

Irons, Edward A. “Fuji, Mt. (Fuji san).” Encyclopedia of Buddhism, edited by J. Gordon Melton, Facts on File, 2008, pp. 208-209. Facts on File Library of Religion and Mythology: Encyclopedia of World Religions. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=ubcolumbia&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CCX4057500252&it=r&asid=4a4f3ebd714ee64b2600f5a915434628. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017.